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Chapter 4

MHR 405 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Goal Setting, Belongingness, Job Enrichment


Department
Human Resources
Course Code
MHR 405
Professor
Sharon Matthews
Chapter
4

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CHAPTER 4
MOTIVATION AT WORK
WHAT IS MOTIVATION AND WHY DOES IT MATTER
Motivation: the set of forces, internal (individual needs and motives) and external (environmental
forces) that initiate work-related behaviour and determine its form, direction, intensity and duration
Intrinsic Motivation: a persons internal drive to do something because of such things as interest,
challenge and personal satisfaction
Extrinsic Motivation: is defined as motivation that comes from outside the person such as pay, tangible
rewards or a promotion
NEED THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
Need Hierarchy: Maslows theory that people are motivated by five sets of needs, and that as a lower
need is gratified, the person becomes motivated by the next need in the hierarchy
Progression Hypothesis: the lowest level of ungratified need motivates behavior
15. Self-actualization needs: need to fulfill ones potential and be all that one can be
24. Esteem needs: need for recognition and status
33. Belongingness need: need for love, friendship and community
42. Safety and Security needs: need for safety and predictability
51. Physiological Needs: need for food and shelter
Theory X and Theory Y
Theory X: a set of assumptions of how to manage individuals who are motivated by lower-order needs
(physiological and safety needs)
Theory Y: a set of assumptions of how to manage individuals who are motivated by higher-order needs
(belongingness, esteem and self actualization)
ERG Theory
A simplified version of Maslows hierarchy from five to three need categories
The existence need addressed Maslows physiological and physical safety needs, relatedness addressed
the needs for interpersonal safety, belongingness and interpersonal esteem, and growth referred to self
esteem and self actualization
Frustration Regression Hypothesis: theory that when people are frustrated in their ability to satisfy a
higher-order need they regress to the next lower category of needs and intensify their desire to gratify
these needs
McClellands Theory of Learned Needs
This theory suggests that secondary needs were operating as well. These secondary needs; (1) did not
progress in a hierarchical manner, (2) were learned, (3) varied based on an individuals personality
Need for Achievement
Is a learned need that concerns issues of excellence, competition, challenging goals, persistence and
overcoming difficulties
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