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Module 2 - Oxygenation.docx

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Ryerson University
Janet Koprivnikar

Module 2: Oxygenation 1. Explain the structure and function of the upper and lower respiratory tracts and the chest wall. Upper respiratory: nose, pharynx. the adenoids, tonsils, epiglottis, larynx and trachea lower respiratory tract: bronchi, the bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveoli - all lower airway conducted in the lungs right lung divided into three lobes: upper, middle, lower left lung into 2 lobes: upper and lower chest wall: ribs, pleura, muscles of respiration Upper respiratory tract: Nose: made of bone cartilage, divided into 2 nares by the nasal septum - Interior of nose is shaped into rolling projections called turbinates- that increase the surface area for warming and moistening air - Internal nose open directly into sinuses Nasal cavity connects with the pharynx, a tubular passageway that is subdivided into three parts: nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx Breathing through the nasal passages provided protection for the lower airway. Nose is lined with mucous membrane and small hairs. Air entering the nose is warmed to near body temperature, humidified to nearly 100% water saturation, and filtered of particles larger than 10 micrometer - Roof of nose has olfactory nerve endings - Adenoids and tonsils found in the nasopharynx, oropharynx respectively - Epiglottis is a small flap of tissue at the base of the tongue o During swallowing, the epiglottis covers the larynx, preventing solids and liquids from entering the lungs After passing through the oropharynx, air moves through the laryngopharynx and larynx, where vocal cords are located and then down into the trachea Trachea – cylandircal tube abt 10-12 cm long and 1.5-2.5 cm in diameter - The support of U-shaped cartilage keeps the trachea open but allows the adjacent esophagus to expand for swallowing - The trachea bifuricates into the right and left main-stem bronchi at a point called the carnia o Carnia located at level of the manubriosternal junction called angle of Louis Lower Respiratory Tract - From carnia air goes to the lower respiratory tract Chest wall - S - 2. What are the factors that can affect oxygenation? Affected by physiological, developmental, lifestyle and environmental factors. Physiological factors – any factors that affects cardiopulmonary functioning directly affects the body’s ability to meet oxygen demands Other physiological processes affecting a client’s oxygenation include alterations that affect the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood, such as anemia, increases in the body’s metabolic demands and alterations that affect chest wall movement or the CNS a. Decreased oxygen- carrying capacity: hemoglobin carries most of the oxygen to tissue o Anemia and inhalation of toxic subst
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