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Chapter 12

PCS 227 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Thermal Expansion, International System Of Units, Heat Capacity


Department
Physics
Course Code
PCS 227
Professor
Karshafian
Chapter
12

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Chapter 12 | Temperature and Heat | Notes
Temperature:
Temperature in Kelvin (K):
๎œถ๎ฏ„๎ตŒ ๎œถ๎ฎผ๎ต…๎ด๎น๎ต๎‡ค๎ณ๎ท ๎€ƒ
Thermal Expansion (Linear Thermal Expansion of a Solid):
Example: The Stress on a Steel Beam
The beam is mounted between two concrete supports when the temperature is 23๎”จ. What
compressional stress must the concrete supports apply to each end of the beam, if they are to
keep the beam from expanding when the temperature rises to 42๎”จ. Steelโ€™s Yongโ€™s Modulus: 2.0
x 1011 N/m2. Steelโ€™s Coefficient of Thermal Expansion: 12.0 x 10-6 ๎ฌต
๎”จ.
๎Žฟ๎œฎ
๎œฎ๎ฌด
๎ตŒ ๎Ÿ™ ๎Žฎ ๎Žฟ๎œถ๎‡ก ๎Žฟ๎œฎ
๎œฎ๎ฌด
๎ตŒ ๎œต๎๎Ž๎œฝ๎…๎Š๎‡ก ๎œต๎๎Ž๎๎๎ ๎ตŒ ๎ˆฏ๎€ƒ ๎Žฎ ๎œต๎๎Ž๎œฝ๎…๎Š๎€ƒ
๎œต๎๎Ž๎๎๎ ๎ตŒ ๎ˆฏ๎€ƒ ๎Žฎ ๎Žฟ๎œฎ
๎œฎ๎ฌด
๎ตŒ ๎ด๎‡ค๎ฒ๎€ƒ๎ตˆ๎€ƒ๎ณ๎ฒ๎ฌต๎ฌต ๎œฐ ๎‰๎ฌถ
๎Žค๎Žฎ๎ณ๎ด๎‡ค๎ฒ๎€ƒ๎ตˆ๎€ƒ๎ณ๎ฒ๎ฌฟ๎ฌบ ๎ณ
๎”จ๎Žฎ๏ˆบ๎ถ๎ด๎”จ ๎ต†๎ด๎ต๎”จ๏ˆป
๎œต๎๎Ž๎๎๎ ๎ตŒ ๎น๎‡ค๎ธ๎€ƒ๎ตˆ๎€ƒ๎ณ๎ฒ๎ฌบ๎€ƒ๏ˆพ๎œฐ ๎‰๎ฌถ๏ˆฟ
๎Žค
Volume Thermal Expansion:
๎Žฟ๎œธ ๎ตŒ ๎Ÿš ๎Žฎ ๎œธ
๎ฌด๎Žฎ ๎Žฟ๎œถ
Heat:
Heat is the energy that flows from a higher temperature object to a lower โ€“ temperature object
because of a difference in temperatures. SI Unit of Heat is Joules (J).
The heat flows from hot to a cold originates in the internal energy of the hot substance.
The heat that must be supplied or removed to change the temperature of a substance is:
๎œณ ๎ตŒ ๎‰ ๎Žฎ ๎œฟ ๎Žฎ ๎Žฟ๎œถ
Where Q is the heat, m is the mass, c is the specific heat capacity and ๎Žฟ๎œถ is the change in
temperature.
๎œถ๎ฌด๎•œ ๎œฎ๎ฌด
๎œถ๎ฌด๎ต… ๎Žฟ๎œถ ๎•œ ๎œฎ๎ฌด๎ต… ๎Žฟ๎œฎ
๎Žฟ๎œฎ
๎œฎ๎ฌด
๎—Ÿ ๎Žฟ๎œถ
๎Žฟ๎œฎ
๎œฎ๎ฌด
๎ตŒ ๎Ÿ™ ๎Žฎ ๎Žฟ๎œถ
๎œน๎„๎๎Ž๎๎€ƒ๎Ÿ™๎€ƒ๎…๎๎€ƒ๎๎„๎๎€ƒ
๎œฟ๎‹๎๎‚๎‚๎…๎œฟ๎…๎Š๎๎Š๎๎€ƒ๎‹๎‚๎€ƒ๎œฎ๎…๎Š๎๎œฝ๎Ž
๎€ƒ๎œง๎”๎Œ๎œฝ๎Š๎๎…๎‹๎Š๎€ƒ
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