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The Theories

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PSY 302
Sohail Rashid

Chapter 7March1510353 PMArticle For Interest May be on test babies as young as 6 months old can tell between good people and bad people When shown dolls doing good actions and bad actionsbabies were more likely to choose the good dolls to play withPiagets Theory of Cognitive DevelopmentPiaget was one of the most influential theorists in the history of child developmentCoined the termgenetic epistemology defined as the experimental study of the origin of knowledgePiaget used the term genetic not in the traditional sense but in the older sense meaning developmentalDefined intelligence as a basic life function that enables an organism to adapt to its environmentHe said the goal of intelligence was to create a balance between thought processes and the environment This balanced state of affairs is called cognitive equilibriumAs children are constantly faced with new stimuli or cognitive disequilibriabetween the childs mind and environment they are prompted to make mental adjustments that allow them to copeDescribed children as constructivists individuals who act on novel objects and events to discover their propertiesChildrens constructions of reality depend on what knowledge they have available to them The more immature a childs cognitive system the more limited his interpretation of an eventAccording to Piaget children learn through the development ofschemesan organized pattern of thought or action that one constructs to interpret some aspect of ones experienceChildren modify and construct their schemes through Organizationprocess by which children combine existing schemes into new and more complex intellectual structuresAdaptationprocess of adjusting to the demands of the environment Occurs through two complementary activitiesAssimilation process by which children try to interpret new experiences in terms of their existing models of the world the schemes they already possessAccommodation is the process of modifying existing schemes to account for new experiencesPiagets Stages of Cognitive DevelopmentIdentified 4 major periods of cognitive developmentFollow an invariant developmental sequenceall children progress through the stages in the same order Cannot be skipped because each successive stage builds on the accomplishments of the previous stagesSensorimotor Stage Birth 2 yrs1Infants coordinate their sensory inputs and motor capabilitiesReflex Activity Birth 1 monthiInfants actions are pretty much confined to exercising innate reflexes assimilating new objects into reflexive schemes and accommodating their reflexes to these novel objectsPrimary Circular Reactions 1 4 monthsiiFirst nonreflexive schemes Infants repeat satisfying responses that are worthy of repeatingie Thumb sucking These simple repetitive acts are called primary circular reactions and are always centered on the infants own bodyPrimary because they are primitive and circular because they are repetitiveSecondary Circular Reactions 48 monthsiiiAlso repeated for the pleasure they bringInfants discover they can make interesting things happen outside their bodiesie Making a toy squeak by squeezing itCoordination of Secondary Schemes 812 monthsivTruly planful responding first appears Child Psychology Page 1
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