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Unit 4 Biochemistry I

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Biological Sciences
BISC 101
Derek Bingham

Unit 4 – Biochemistry I 1 Major Groups of Lipids Important to Humans Lipids Relationship Protection, insulation, source of Fats energy Major lipid component of cell Lecithin Phospholipids membranes; constituent of plasma Highly concentrated in nerves and Cephalin and Sphingomyelin brain tissue Constituent of all animal cells, blood, and nervous tissue; precursor Cholesterol of bile salts, vitamin D, and steroid hormones Substances that emulsify or suspend fats before their digestion and Bile Salts absorption; needed for absorption Steroids of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) Produced in skin on exposure to UV Vitamin D radiation; necessary for bone growth, development, and repair Sex hormones produced in large Estogrens quantities by females Androgens Sex hormones produced in large quantities by males Membrane-associated lipids that stimulate uterine contractions, induce labour and abortions, regulate blood pressure, transmit Prostaglandins nerve impulses, regulate metabolism, regulate stomach secretions, inhibit lipid breakdown, and regulate muscular contractions of the gastrointestinal tract; mediates hormones. Pigment in egg yolk, carrots, and tomatoes; vitamin A is formed from Carotenes carotenes; retinene, formed from vitamin A, is a photoreceptor in the retina of the eye May promote wound healing, Other Lipid Structures prevent scarring, contribute to the normal structure and functioning of the nervous system, and acts as an Vitamin E antioxidant; deficiency causes sterility in rats and muscular dystrophy in monkeys; deficiency in humans may result in anemia. Unit 4 – Biochemistry I 2 Objective 1 – Specify the major elements that make up carbohydrate molecules.  Carbohydrates = commonly called sugars and starches  Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are found in carbohydrates  Ratio of carbon to hydrogen to oxygen is commonly 1:2:1 but not always (i.e., gluc8s12C6H O , a monosaccharide)  Functions: o Some are converted to proteins or fats or function as food reserves o Primary function: provide readily available source of energy to sustain life Objective 2 – Describe three major groups of carbohydrates, using examples, and specify one function for each group. Carbohydrates are divided into three major groups on the basis of size:  Monosaccharides – simple sugars; contains 3-7 carbon atoms o
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