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BPK 140 (138)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5

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Simon Fraser University
Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 140
Diana Bedoya

KIN 140 Book Notes An Invitation to Health Reading List 1 Chapter 5; pp. 109-120, pp. 124-125, pp. 127-132 PERSONAL NUTRITION Essential Nutrients – nutrients your body cannot manufacture for itself Macronutrients – nutrients required by the body in the greatest amounts - Need depends on how much energy you expend - Fat – 9 calories/gram - Protein – 4 calories/gram - Carbohydrates – 4 calories/gram Micronutrients – body only needs small amounts of these nutrients - Vitamins - Minerals Essential Nutrients Functions Sources Water Carries nutrients and removes waste; Liquids, fruits, vegetables dissolves amino acids, glucose, and minerals; regulates body temperature Proteins Help build new tissue to keep hair, skin, Meat, poultry, fish, egg, beans, eyesight healthy; build antibodies, enzymes, nuts, cheese tofu, vegetables, hormones; provide fuel for the body pasta, breads, cereal, and rice Carbohydrates Provide energy Grains, cereal, pasta, fruits, vegetables, milk, and sugars Fats Unsaturated – provides energy; triggers more Some fish, avocados, olive, - Saturated fats “good” cholesterol production and less canola, peanut oils, stick - Unsaturated fats “bad” cholesterol production margarine, baked goods Vitamins Facilitate the use of other nutrients; involvedFruits, vegetables, grains, some in regulating growth; maintaining tissue, and meat and dairy products manufacturing blood cells, hormones, etc Minerals Help build bones and teeth; aid in muscle Many foods… function and nervous system activity; assist in various body functions, including growth and energy production Water - Makes up 85% of blood, 75% of muscles, and 75% of the brain - Carries nutrients, maintains temperature, lubricates joints, helps with digestion, rids body of waste through urine - Higher fluid intake is correlated with a lower risk of kidney stones, colon cancer, and bladder cancer - We lose 2-2.5 liters of water a day – to balance, drink 2.7-3.7 liters of fluid a day Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) – the number of calories needed to sustain your body at rest Calories – the measure of the amount of energy that can be derived from food - Intake depends on sex, weight, age, race, etc - Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) o Average Canadian consumes 2921 calories a day o Men Women Sedentary Level (daily activities) 2500 calories per day 1900 calories per day Low Active Level (daily activities + 2700 calories per day 2100 calories per day 30-60 minutes of moderate activity) Active Level (daily activities + at leas3000 calories per day 2350 calories per day 60 minutes of moderate activity) Protein – basic framework of our muscles, bones, fingernails, and hair - needed for growth and repair - 4 calories per gram - Amino acids - Complete proteins – provide the eight essential amino acids o Animal proteins – meat, fish, poultry, dairy products - Incomplete proteins – low levels of one or two essential amino acids but high levels of others o Grains, dry beans, nuts - Complementary protein – combining incomplete proteins to ensure that the body gets sufficient protein - Recommended protein intake is 8 grams per kilogram of body weight Carbohydrates – organic compound that provides our brain (!) and body with glucose - 4 calories per gram - Monosaccharide – known as simple sugars, or simple carbohydrates o Consist of one simple sugar unit o i.e. glucose, fructose, galactose - Disaccharide – two sugar units linked by a chemical bond o i.e. sucrose, lactose, maltose, table sugar o must be broken down into simple sugars before the body can use them - Polysaccharide – known as complex carbohydrates o i.e. starches and glycogen o have more than 10 units of sugar, and must be broken down before used o recommended: 130 grams of digestible carbohydrates per day o foundation of a healthy diet - Fiber o Daily Recommendation: men – 38 grams; women – 25 grams o Dietary fiber – non-digestible form of carbohydrates occurring naturally in plant foods o Functional fiber – isolated, non-digestible carbohydrates that may be added to foods and that provide beneficial effects in humans o Soluble Fiber – absorbs water; slows the absorption process in the blood, keeping food longer in the small intestine  Benefits: blood sugar regulation and weight management  Interfered with the absorption of dietary fat and cholesterol – lowers risk of heart disease and stroke  i.e. barley, oatmeal, strawberries, oranges, apples o Insoluble Fibers – cling to water and prevent constipation and diverticulosis  i.e. cellulose, lignin, hemicelluloses Glycemic Index (GI) – a measure of how much carbohydrate-containing food is likely to raise your blood sugar - benefits of low-glycemic foods: prevention of Type 2 Diab
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