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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Kin143 notes

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Simon Fraser University
Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 143
Tony Leyland

Genome – all the inheritable traits of an organism The genotype describes the genetic constitution of an individual. In contrast, the phenotype of an individual organism describes one of its measurable traits or characteristics. (like eye colour or aggressive behavior) Though many phenotypes are a result of genes, some are also significantly affected by environmental factors (like language). The interaction between genotype and phenotype can be conceptualized by the following relationship: Genotype + Environment = Phenotype Fitness level is a phenotype that is influenced by both an individual’s genetics and his or her environment. Some perspective on fitness: - basic anatomy and physiology has been pretty much the same over the past 40,000 years - it’s very different as a consequence of different environments, with our current environment being predominantly sedentary (accustomed to rest/to take little exercise). This environment results in abnormal gene expression which results in diseases like hypertension and diabetes. Current scientific evidence supports the notion that disruptions in cellular homeostasis are diminished in magnitude in physically active individuals due to the natural selection of gene expression that supports the physically active lifestyle of our ancestors. Basically, people who are physically active are healthier and have greater cellular homeostasis because of natural selection (since our ancestors were physically active cause of hunting and stuff). In a way, we’re “programmed” to be active, and therefore less active individuals are more prone to bullshit. < Don’t blame health problems on genes > Besides your environment, epigenetics also affect your phenotype. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in phenotype caused by mechanisms other than changes in DNA. Genes can get “turned on” and “turned off” by the environment humans encounter and this can be passed onto future generations. Partially heritable biological changes affecting phenotype. You’re phenotype isn’t completely affected by your parents genes, but are still affected partially. ~EPIGENETICS~ Also diet. Foods available to your ancestors would have been affected by their geographical location and exposure to these food would have caused some epigenetic adaptation. “So if we feed an Inuit population and a European population a diet based on lots of grains, the incidence of type 2 diabetes will be higher in the Inuit population because this is a “newer” food to them. This is despite the fact that the genome of Inuit and Europeans is essentially the same.” ~EPIGENETICS~ Though the genome is the same between individuals, this does not mean they work in the same way. We ain’t adapting to sedentary lifestyles though. Not adapting to being lazier than our past generations. ---------------------------- Physical fitness is the ability to carry out daily tasks with vigor and alertness, without undue fatigue, and with ample energy to enjoy leisure time pursuits and to meet unforeseen emergencies. Fitness professionals and academics generally agree on the following components of physical fitness:  Cardiorespiratory (aerobic) endurance  Muscular strength  Muscular endurance  Flexibility  Body composition Both “health” related and “performance” related are both important to being fit. --------------------------------- Balancing stiffness on all sides of the spine is more critical to ensuring stability than having high forces on a single side. AKA if you’re gonna boost your abs, work on your back muscles too. MUSCLE BALANCE. Exercises that include a coordination component can improve strength, endurance, and coordination in the same amount of time as a simple strength/endurance exercise on a machine. Tai-chi helps reduce falling among seniors (SO THAAAAT’S WHY) Motor coordination and balance, incorporated into functional exercises, are very important health components of fitness. (Prevents back injuries and falling, respectively) You do not have to be an athlete working out six days a week to benefit from physical activity. Research shows that a considerable reduction in the relative risk of death can be obtained from only a few moderate exercise sessions per month. However, fitness exp
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