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BPK 143 Chapter Notes -Shoulder Joint, Exercise Intensity, Myocyte

Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course Code
BPK 143
Tony Leyland

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er 1: Introduction to Fitness and Developing a Basic Fitness Plan
1. Complete the following relationship: genotype +
<??> ? phenotype
2. Provide as complete a definition of fitness as possible.
The ability of an individual to go about their day to day
life with vigor and alertness, without becoming
fatigued and retaining ample energy to pursue leisure
activities and react in case of an emergency.
3. The question “are you fit?” should really only be
correctly answered by the counter- question “fit for
what?” Explain what I mean by this statement.
Different activities/livelihoods require different levels
of the components of fitness in their accomplishment,
such as specialization in athletes. For example, a
marathon runner may be incredibly fit for running, but
not fit for doing activities that involve heavy lifting
because his musculature system is not sufficiently
trained. On the other side a power lifter’s
cardiovascular endurance may not be fit enough to do a
marathon, although he is very fit in areas of strength
and power.
4. What is the difference between infectious and chronic
diseases? Which are more prevalent today?
Infectious diseases manifest themselves as attacks on
the body’s systems due to the spread of pathogenic
biological agents. Chronic diseases are longstanding
weaknesses/failures in the body’s systems due to
poor/abnormal gene expression. Chronic diseases are
more prevalent today due to the fact infectious
diseases can often be addressed with medical
advancements such as antibiotics whereas chronic
diseases (such as heart disease and diabetes) are often
caused by many poor life choices such as sedentary
5. Describe the components of physical fitness.
1. Cardiovascular/respiratory endurance the
ability of the body to gather, process, and
transport oxygen.
2. Muscular Strength the ability of a muscular
unit or combination of muscular units to apply
3. Muscular Endurance the ability of a muscular
unit or combination of muscular units to
4. Flexibility the ability to optimize range of
motion at a joint.
6. What are the basic differences between health-
related and performance-related components of physical
Health-related components of physical fitness are
components deemed by the scientific community
necessary to achieve optimal health, whereas
performance-related components of physical fitness
are deemed skills not essential to the general
population, such as speed.
7. I argued that separation of components into health-
related and performance-related may not be an ideal
model. Give one of my arguments on this topic.
All components of fitness contribute to the range of
abilities by the body, which in extreme situations (such
as being fast enough to escape some hurtling danger)
one’s health may indeed rely on, or simply improve the
quality of wellness of life in one’s pursuits and capacity.
8. List any 7 of the 10 general physical skills.
1. Cardiovascular/respitory endurance the
ability of the body’s systems to gather,
process, and transport oxygen.
2. Strength the ability of muscular units or a
combination of muscular units to exert force
3. Stamina the ability of the body to maintain
its level of work over time
4. Power the ability of muscular units or a
combination of muscular units to apply
maximum force in minimum time
5. Flexibility the ability to optimize the range of
motion at a joint
6. Coordination the ability to combine multiple
forms of movement into a singular movement.
7. Agility the ability to change forms of
movement in minimum time.
8. Speed the rate of change of a position
9. Balance the ability to control one’s center of
gravity in response to shifts in its support base
10. Accuracy the ability to control movement in
a given direction at a given intensity
9. Physical activity can reduce the risk of an individual
developing many diseases. Name three such diseases.
Cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome,
osteoporosis (low bone-density)
10. A friend asks you, “how much exercise is ideal?” Provide
a brief response to this question. Try to quote some
physiological evidence in your answer.

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Most research experts recommend working out 3-5
days per week to be in optimal health, although
‘optimal health’ is often defined as the absence of
disease and many not take into account the amount of
exercise needed to be ‘fit’ for different pursuits, such as
those who want to pursue hiking. Any small amount of
activity is better than none, and after a while the peak
effects of exercise start leveling off with the amount
done. In truth the amount, intensity, and frequency of
exercise varies from person to person, and you should
try to push yourself past ‘comfortable exercise’ in all
areas you wish to improve. It is possible to “overdo”
exercise, however, and overtraining can reduce the
body’s immune system and lead to fatigue and illness.
11. Explain the “open window” theory.
Open window the period of time after bouts of
extreme exercise where the activity of natural killer T-
cells is reduced.
12. Compare advantages and disadvantages of experimental
versus epidemiological studies for investigating the
relationship between physical activity and health.
Experimental studies operate under an extremely
controlled set of variables in which only one is changed
and tested. In investigating the relationship between
activity and health these studies are less frequently
attainable due to the inability to account for all the
processes and behaviours within and between
individuals. However it can be advantageous in
circumstances such as monitoring VO2 max for an
athlete between different forms of exercise in a
controlled room/time frame.
Epidemiological studies compare the health of
populations as they present themselves without any
manipulation to observe correlation in physical activity
and health. This is advantageous in observing trends for
large portions of the population and developing
overarching hypotheses/theories on fitness. However it
can be disadvantageous when correlation is mistaken for
causation, or when one accepts an epidemiological study
without examining whether they fall in the studies
13. What criteria should you apply to evaluate whether an
epidemiological study is valid?
1. The association between exercise and health is
2. The association between exercise and health is
3. The association between exercise and health is
4. Other obvious factors are shown not to be the
cause of association
14. “Correlation is not causation”. Explain the meaning of
this statement with respect to research into human
fitness and wellness.
Correlation suggests a mutual relationship between two
variables, whereas causation suggests the nature of one
variable to be a result of the behaviour of the other.
With respect to human fitness and wellness, one can
determine a direct causation between smoking and lung
problems, but only a correlation can be drawn between
regular exercise and overall health which may be
attributed to a number of things in the regularly active
population (who, being physically active, are possible
less likely to smoke which causes health issues) that the
non-active population may differ on.
15. Discuss the process you would adopt to change a
personal behaviour.
I would select one target behaviour to change, and focus
on that; setting a precise goal I could meet before
readjusting my goals to target another behaviour or
changing the extent I wish to achieve the first one.
16. Describe the important steps in developing a fitness
Setting long term goals (like improving aerobic
efficiency) but also short term goals that are measurable
(such as swimming three times a week). Make a
commitment. Review your goals frequently to assess
their attainability and set new goals once you’ve
achieved old goals.
17. What does SMART goal setting mean?
Specific (set goals that are specific and definable in their
Measurable (set goals that can be measured toward
their achievement)
Acceptable (set goals that you will feel good about
Realistic (set goals that are realistic that you have the
capacity to accomplish)
Timely (have deadlines, set short and long term goals
and create new goals when the old ones are achieved.)
Chapter 2: Basic Principles of Physiologic Conditioning
1. Distinguish between physical activity and exercise.

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Physical activity any level of activity above resting
level, such as going for a walk or gardening
Exercise A subset of physical activity that is planned,
structured, and repetitive, such as swimming for 30
minutes 3 times per week.
2. Describe the four principles of physiologic conditioning.
Overload Principle exercising a system at a greater
capacity than it is used to operating at forces the system
to adapt and function more efficiently.
Specificity Principle when exercised the body
undergoes adaptations specific to the body systems
being exercised.
Reversibility Principle once one reaches a level of
fitness one must continue to exercise to maintain that
Individual Differences Principle individual
characteristics such as genotype, age, and lifestyle, will
affect how the adaptations to exercise are expressed.
3. In terms of aerobic training effects, what is the most
important factortraining intensity, duration, or
frequency? Explain.
In terms of aerobic training effects, training intensity is
the most important factor because training at low
intensity (for example; < 50%) has been shown to have
next to no effect on fitness, whereas no lower threshold
has been established for duration and frequency.
4. Using the FITTness formula, describe the components of
an aerobic weight-bearing (such as running) program for
a 28-year-old female. Show your calculations regarding
exercise intensity. Be specific.
Frequency 5 times a week
Intensity Running at a pace between 70-90% of
maximum heart rate. Maximum heart rate: 220 28 =
192 bpm, Target heart rate range: 192 * .7 = 134, 192 *
.9 = 173 between 125 173 bpm.
Time 30 minutes
Type - Running
5. Using the FITTness formula, describe the components of
an aerobic swimming program for a 45-year-old male.
Show your calculations regarding exercise intensity. Be
Frequency 3 times per week
Intensity Swimming at a pace between 60-90% of
maximum heart rate FOR SWIMMING. Maximum heart
rate: 205 45 = 160 bpm. Target heart rate: 160 *.7 =
112, 160 *.9 = 144 between 112 144 bpm.
Time 30 minutes
Type - Swimming
6. Explain the difference between the maximal heart rate
and the heart rate reserve methods for determining
exercise intensity.
The maximal heart rate method only focuses on the
percentage of maximal heart rate used, which is only a
part of looking at one’s aerobic capacity. The heart rate
reserve method more accurately reflects the percentage
use of one’s full aerobic capacity.
7. Define the Karvonen formula.
Maximum heart rate resting heart rate = heart rate
8. What does RPE mean?
Rate of Perceived Exertion.
9. Describe how to use the talk-test.
During aerobic work (such as running) one should be
able to sustain a conversation. If one can’t because one’s
breathing is too laboured, the work being done is
anaerobic and will not be able to be sustained for a long
period of time. However if one can sing while doing the
activity, one is likely not putting in enough work to meet
sufficient aerobic intensity.
10. Is it proper to apply an exercise prescription based on
heart rate for running and cycling to swimming? Explain.
No, because swimming is not weight-bearing and occurs
with the body in a lateral position where the vascular
column is lowered and the heart isn’t required to pump
as hard to circulate the necessary blood. Also because
water temperature cools the body faster than air, the
heart doesn’t have to pump as hard to circulate blood to
superficial capillaries so excess body heat to dissipate.
Therefore similar levels of work in swimming will not
produce as high a heart rate as will result from other
aerobic activities like running or cycling.
11. List three common training errors.
1. Not planning effectively
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