er 1: Introduction to Fitness and Developing a Basic Fitness Plan 6. What are the basic differences between health-
related and performance-related components of physical
1. Complete the following relationship: genotype + fitness.
?> ? phenotype
Health-related components of physical fitness are
Environment components deemed by the scientific community
necessary to achieve optimal health, whereas
2. Provide as complete a definition of fitness as possible. performance-related components of physical fitness
are deemed skills not essential to the general
population, such as speed.
The ability of an individual to go about their day to day
life with vigor and alertness, without becoming
7. I argued that separation of components into health-
fatigued and retaining ample energy to pursue leisure
activities and react in case of an emergency. related and performance-related may not be an ideal
model. Give one of my arguments on this topic.
3. The question “are you fit?” should really only be
correctly answered by the counter- question “fit for All components of fitness contribute to the range of
abilities by the body, which in extreme situations (such
what?” Explain what I mean by this statement.
as being fast enough to escape some hurtling danger)
one’s health may indeed rely on, or simply improve the
Different activities/livelihoods require different levels quality of wellness of life in one’s pursuits and capacity.
of the components of fitness in their accomplishment,
such as specialization in athletes. For example, a
8. List any 7 of the 10 general physical skills.
marathon runner may be incredibly fit for running, but
not fit for doing activities that involve heavy lifting 1. Cardiovascular/respitory endurance – the
because his musculature system is not sufficiently ability of the body’s systems to gather,
process, and transport oxygen.
trained. On the other side a power lifter’s
cardiovascular endurance may not be fit enough to do a 2. Strength – the ability of muscular units or a
marathon, although he is very fit in areas of strength combination of muscular units to exert force
3. Stamina – the ability of the body to maintain
its level of work over time
4. Power – the ability of muscular units or a
4. What is the difference between infectious and chronic combination of muscular units to apply
diseases? Which are more prevalent today?
maximum force in minimum time
5. Flexibility – the ability to optimize the range of
Infectious diseases manifest themselves as attacks on
the body’s systems due to the spread of pathogenic motion at a joint
6. Coordination – the ability to combine multiple
biological agents. Chronic diseases are longstanding forms of movement into a singular movement.
weaknesses/failures in the body’s systems due to
poor/abnormal gene expression. Chronic diseases are 7. Agility – the ability to change forms of
movement in minimum time.
more prevalent today due to the fact infectious 8. Speed – the rate of change of a position
diseases can often be addressed with medical
advancements such as antibiotics whereas chronic 9. Balance – the ability to control one’s center of
gravity in response to shifts in its support base
diseases (such as heart disease and diabetes) are often 10. Accuracy – the ability to control movement in
caused by many poor life choices such as sedentary
a given direction at a given intensity
5. Describe the components of physical fitness.
1. Cardiovascular/respiratory endurance – the
ability of the body to gather, process, and 9. Physical activity can reduce the risk of an individual
developing many diseases. Name three such diseases.
2. Muscular Strength – the ability of a muscular
unit or combination of muscular units to apply Cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome,
osteoporosis (low bone-density)
3. Muscular Endurance – the ability of a muscular
unit or combination of muscular units to 10. A friend asks you, “how much exercise is ideal?” Provide
a brief response to this question. Try to quote some
4. Flexibility – the ability to optimize range of
motion at a joint. physiological evidence in your answer. Most research experts recommend working out 3-5 14. “Correlation is not causation”. Explain the meaning of
days per week to be in optimal health, although this statement with respect to research into human
‘optimal health’ is often defined as the absence of fitness and wellness.
disease and many not take into account the amount of
exercise needed to be ‘fit’ for different pursuits, such as
Correlation suggests a mutual relationship between two
those who want to pursue hiking. Any small amount of variables, whereas causation suggests the nature of one
activity is better than none, and after a while the peak variable to be a result of the behaviour of the other.
effects of exercise start leveling off with the amount With respect to human fitness and wellness, one can
done. In truth the amount, intensity, and frequency of determine a direct causation between smoking and lung
exercise varies from person to person, and you should problems, but only a correlation can be drawn between
try to push yourself past ‘comfortable exercise’ in all regular exercise and overall health – which may be
areas you wish to improve. It is possible to “overdo” attributed to a number of things in the regularly active
exercise, however, and overtraining can reduce the
population (who, being physically active, are possible
body’s immune system and lead to fatigue and illness. less likely to smoke which causes health issues) that the
non-active population may differ on.
11. Explain the “open window” theory.
15. Discuss the process you would adopt to change a
Open window – the period of time after bouts of personal behaviour.
extreme exercise where the activity of natural killer T-
cells is reduced. I would select one target behaviour to change, and focus
on that; setting a precise goal I could meet before
12. Compare advantages and disadvantages of experimental readjusting my goals to target another behaviour or
versus epidemiological studies for investigating the changing the extent I wish to achieve the first one.
relationship between physical activity and health.
16. Describe the important steps in developing a fitness
Experimental studies operate under an extremely plan.
controlled set of variables in which only one is changed
and tested. In investigating the relationship between
Setting long term goals (like improving aerobic
activity and health these studies are less frequently efficiency) but also short term goals that are measurable
attainable due to the inability to account for all the (such as swimming three times a week). Make a
processes and behaviours within and between commitment. Review your goals frequently to assess
individuals. However it can be advantageous in their attainability and set new goals once you’ve
circumstances such as monitoring VO2 max for an achieved old goals.
athlete between different forms of exercise in a
controlled room/time frame. 17. What does SMART goal setting mean?
Epidemiological studies compare the health of Specific (set goals that are specific and definable in their
populations as they present themselves without any
manipulation to observe correlation in physical activity
and health. This is advantageous in observing trends for
large portions of the population and developing Measurable (set goals that can be measured toward
overarching hypotheses/theories on fitness. However it
can be disadvantageous when correlation is mistaken for
causation, or when one accepts an epidemiological study Acceptable (set goals that you will feel good about
without examining whether they fall in the studies
Realistic (set goals that are realistic that you have the
capacity to accomplish)
13. What criteria should you apply to evaluate whether an
epidemiological study is valid?
Timely (have deadlines, set short and long term goals
1. The association between exercise and health is
repeatable and create new goals when the old ones are achieved.)
2. The association between exercise and health is
logical Chapter 2: Basic Principles of Physiologic Conditioning
3. The association between exercise and health is
strong 1. Distinguish between physical activity and exercise.
4. Other obvious factors are shown not to be the
cause of association Physical activity – any level of activity above resting Frequency – 3 times per week
level, such as going for a walk or gardening
Intensity – Swimming at a pace between 60-90% of
Exercise – A subset of physical activity that is planned, maximum heart rate FOR SWIMMING. Maximum heart
structured, and repetitive, such as swimming for 30 rate: 205 – 45 = 160 bpm. Target heart rate: 160 *.7 =
minutes 3 times per week. 112, 160 *.9 = 144 between 112 – 144 bpm.
2. Describe the four principles of physiologic conditioning. Time – 30 minutes
Overload Principle – exercising a system at a greater Type - Swimming
capacity than it is used to operating at forces the system
to adapt and function more efficiently. 6. Explain the difference between the maximal heart rate
and the heart rate reserve methods for determining
Specificity Principle – when exercised the body exercise intensity.
undergoes adaptations specific to the body systems
being exercised. The maximal heart rate method only focuses on the
percentage of maximal heart rate used, which is only a
Reversibility Principle – once one reaches a level of part of looking at one’s aerobic capacity. The heart rate
fitness one must continue to exercise to maintain that reserve method more accurately reflects the percentage
level. use of one’s full aerobic capacity.
Individual Differences Principle – individual 7. Define the Karvonen formula.
characteristics such as genotype, age, and lifestyle, will
affect how the adaptations to exercise are expressed.
Maximum heart rate – resting heart rate = heart rate
3. In terms of aerobic training effects, what is the most
important factor—training intensity, duration, or 8. What does RPE mean?
Rate of Perceived Exertion.
In terms of aerobic training effects, training intensity is
the most important factor because training at low
9. Describe how to use the talk-test.
intensity (for example; < 50%) has been shown to have
next to no effect on fitness, whereas no lower threshold
has been established for duration and frequency. During aerobic work (such as running) one should be
able to sustain a conversation. If one can’t because one’s
breathing is too laboured, the work being done is
4. Using the FITTness formula, describe the components of
anaerobic and will not be able to be sustained for a long
an aerobic weight-bearing (such as running) program for period of time. However if one can sing while doing the
a 28-year-old female. Show your calculations regarding activity, one is likely not putting in enough work to meet
exercise intensity. Be specific.
sufficient aerobic intensity.
Frequency – 5 times a week
10. Is it proper to apply an exercise prescription based on
heart rate for running and cycling to swimming? Explain.
Intensity – Running at a pace between 70-90% of
maximum heart rate. Maximum heart rate: 220 – 28 = No, because swimming is not weight-bearing and occurs
192 bpm, Target heart rate range: 192 * .7 = 134, 192 * with the body in a lateral position where the vascular
.9 = 173 between 125 – 173 bpm.
column is lowered and the heart isn’t required to pump
as hard to circulate the necessary blood. Also because
Time – 30 minutes water temperature cools the body faster than air, the
heart doesn’t have to pump as hard to circulate blood to
Type - Running superficial capillaries so excess body heat to dissipate.
Therefore similar levels of work in swimming will not
5. Using the FITTness formula, describe the components of produce as high a heart rate as will result from other
an aerobic swimming program for a 45-year-old male. aerobic activities like running or cycling.
Show your calculations regarding exercise intensity. Be
specific 11. List three common training errors.
1. Not planning effectively 2. Not individualizing your program 3. Which name is given to the lowest segment of the
3. Not warming up effectively vertebral column?
12. List three symptoms of overtraining.
1. Chronic fatigue Lumbar vertebra
2. Decreased appetite
3. Insomnia 4. What is the anatomical name for the heel bone?
13. Describe some common components of a warm-up
program and a good cool-down program. Calcaneus
1. Warm Up: General active warm-ups (i.e.
jogging, calisthenics, dynamic stretching), then
5. Give the proper anatomical names of the three bones
sport-specific warm-ups (i.e. passing a ball that come together in the region of the shoulder joint.
around for soccer)
2. Cool-down: Slow-jogging to gradually bring
Clavicle, Scapula, Humerous
down heart rate, stretching exercises for the
used major muscle groups or full body if
desired. 6. What is movement of a limb away from the midline of
14. Describe physiological and psychological benefits of a the body called?
warm-up prior to exercise session.
1. Physiological = gradual increase in metabolic
requirements, prevents muscle acidity, gradual
increase in deep muscle temperature to 7. What shoulder joint action is occurring during the up-
improve elasticity and reduce likelihood of phase of a bench press?
tears, lubricates joints, screens for
musculoskeletal or metabolic problems before
2. Psychological = increase arousal/awareness
15. Describe the physiological and psychological benefits of 8. What hip joint action is occurring during the down-phase
of an air squat?
a cool-down after an exercise period.
1. Physiological = maintains venous return to
heart; preventing venous pooling which can Flexion
cause rapid drops in blood pressure and
consequently light-headedness and blackouts, 9. Give the proper anatomical name of a muscle whose
hastens removal of lactate from muscles and principal action is flexion at the shoulder joint.
lactate is then used in recovery process,
reduces acidity of muscles, allows heart rate, Lateral deltoid.
oxygen uptake, and body temperature to return
gradually to resting levels, reduces 10. Which muscle causes extension at the elbow joint when
concentrations of exercise hormones which can it contracts?
cause cardiac rhythm disturbances post-
2. Psychological = allows mental
relaxation/transition from stressful physical 11. Give the proper anatomical name of a muscle whose
activity to rest.
principal action is extension at the hip joint.
Rectus femoris (member of quadriceps)
Chapter 3: Musculoskeletal Anatomy and Basic Resistance 12. Give the proper anatomical name of a muscle whose
principal action is extension at the shoulder joint.
1. What does the term proximal mean (anatomical
context)? Latissimus dorsi
Closest part nearest the trunk or head 13. Give the proper anatomical name of the muscle that lifts
the toes up towards the patella (ankle dorsiflexion).
2. What is the name of the bone on the little finger side of
Radius 14. Give the proper anatomical name of two prime mover Disadvantages:
muscles that are used in the shoulder (military or
overhead) press weight training exercise. Increased risk of muscle and ligament injuries
Anterior deltoid, lateral deltoid Increased risk of bone and tendon injuries
15. What does the term 10-RM (ten-repetition maximum) Increased risk of lower back injuries
mean in terms of weight training?
3. Define muscular power.
A person can do an exercise 10 consecutive times
before failing on the eleventh.
The expenditure of force by a muscular unit or group of
16. For each of the following weight training exercises,
describe how to perform the exercise, list 2 or 3 prime
4. Distinguish between muscular strength and muscular
mover (target) muscles that are stressed and any key endurance.
Muscular strength – the maximal amount of force a
muscular unit or group of muscles can expend.
Biceps curl Muscular endurance – the ability of a muscular unit or
group of muscles to perform contractions against a light
Leg extension load for an extended period of time.
Leg press 5. Distinguish between isokinetic, isotonic and isometric
Lat pull-down contractions.
Overhead press Isokinetic contractions – muscle contractions in which
the muscle shortens and lengthens at a constant
Back Squat velocity.
Isotonic contractions – muscle contractions in which
17. Explain three safety rules that you should follow while the tension (force) upon the muscles remains constant.
-Use a spotter when doing free weights such as bars that Isometric contractions – muscle contractions in which
could fall on your chest the muscle length overall remains static.
-Lift through the full range of motion
6. Define the terms agonist and antagonist.
-Avoid holding your breath.
Agonist – the muscle that produces the movement
Chapter 4: Muscular Strength and Endurance Programming Antagonist – the muscle that can produce movement
1. List five benefits of resistance training. counter to the agonist.
Muscular strength 7. What is a bi-articulate muscle?
A muscle that crosses two joints.
8. What are the characteristics of FOG fibres?
Strength of Bones
Fast Oxidative-Glycolytic. Fast twitch fibers that are
fatigue resistant, able to maintain their force
production even after large numbers of contractions.
Tensile strength of ligaments/tendons
9. Compare the characteristics of fast-twitch motor units
2. List some benefits and some disadvantages of resistance versus slow-twitch motor units.
training. In most voluntary everyday contractions, slow-twitch A muscle can produce the greatest amount of force
motor units are recruited first. With increasing power when it is at resting length because the more proteins
output, more fast-twitch motor units are recruited. that are pulled apart in the sliding-filament action, the
Slow-twitch motor units have a lower power output but less overlap of protein filaments there is and therefore
much greater endurance capabilities, whereas fast less force-generation is possible. On the other hand if
twitch motor units have a higher power output but they get to short and overlap too much and again
lower endurance capabilities. Slow-twitch motor units cannot produce optimal force.
are also used to maintain upright posture (anti-gravity
musculature). High-twitch motor units are used during 17. At what percentage of maximum isometric forces does
activities requiring greater power. peak muscular power occur?
10. Which skeletal muscle fibre type is best suited for being At resting length.
used in endurance events such as the running 5,000-
meter race? Explain. 18. Distinguish between concentric and eccentric muscle
contractions and give an example of a movement or
Slow-twitch because it can maintain muscle activity in which each type of contraction is used
contractions over a long period of time without
becoming fatigued. Concentric muscle contractions – when a muscle is
contracting and shortening, eg. Lifting a barbell.
11. Which skeletal muscle fibre type is best suited for being
used in sprint and short durance power events such as Eccentric muscle contractions – when a force (eg.
the 100-meter sprint and throwing? Explain.
Gravity) is causing the muscle to lengthen but the
muscle itself is trying to shorten, e.g. lowering a
Fast-twitch because over smaller periods of time it can barbell.
produce contractions with a much higher power level.
19. Briefly explain why a muscle can produce the greatest
12. Name two muscles that are part of the antigravity
amount of force when it is at resting length.
Rectus abdominus, gluteus macimus
20. Define muscular torque. Draw a typical torque-angle
13. What two neural factors influence muscle force diagram for a human joint.
Force x Perpendicular Distance
Sarcomere activation (contraction)
14. Describe the mechanisms that a whole muscle uses to
vary the force of contraction from slight to maximal.
21. Explain the concept behind a variable resistance machine
with a non-round pulley.
A muscle varies the force of contraction from slight to
maximal by recruiting more muscle fibres. By turning
A longer lever arm makes it easier to lift weight at
these fibers ‘on’ neural signals cause the heads of beginning of muscle contraction when muscles during
myosin protein filaments to form cross bridges by
attaching to actin filaments and sliding past them to the electro-mechanical delay, then as the pulley turns a
shorter lever arm makes muscle contraction more
produce force and shorten the fiber. difficult now that necessary muscle units are firing.
15. Explain the all-or-nothing-law in the context of muscle 22. How do isokinetic machines vary the resistance the
The all-or-nothing-law states that muscle fibers are
either ‘on’ and contracting or ‘off’ and not contracting, Isokinetic machines vary the resistance the athlete
experiences through fluid viscosity (ex; if you move
there is no such thing as all muscles being on and your hand slowly through water you feel a slight
resistance which increases with the velocity you move
your hand at)
16. Briefly explain why a muscle can produce the greatest
amount of force when it is at resting length. 23. Is isokinetic strength training better than standard In the early stages of training neural adaptation is the
weight training using barbells or Universal Gym most important factor in strength gains; adapting to
equipment? Explain. training by recruiting existing muscle fibers more
No because natural movements involve differences in
speed of muscle shortening/lengthening. However 27. Why is the average man stronger than the average
isokinetic strength training can be good for joint woman, even when this strength is expressed as a
rehabilitation by adjusting the resistance to one’s weight lifted/body weight ratio?
Because a greater proportion of an average man’s body
24. Compare advantages and disadvantages of machine