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Canada (162,366)
BPK 205 (11)
Chapter 17

Respiratory Section Ch. 17 and 18 Study questions

10 Pages
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Department
Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course Code
BPK 205
Professor
Parveen Bawa

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Description
Dr. Walsh has added two more questions: 1) describe respiratory alkalosis 2) as described in lecture, how does high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) occur, and what are its consequences? PB Practice Questions for Chapters17 and 18 1. Starting from the nose and all the way to the alveoli, draw and describe the structure of the airways for respiration. [Max 20 minutes, 1 page +figure] • Thoracic cavity: o Made up of respiratory muscles and bones o 3 sacs:  Pericardial sac encloses heart  2 pleural sacs  enclose lungs o Major blood vessels related to heart, lungs, esophagus • Trachea o Flexible tube supported by cartilage rings. • Trachea bifurcates into two bronchii. These bronchii keep dividing (22x) until one reaches cartilage-free terminal branches called bronchioles 2. What is surface tension T of a liquid? Why is surface tension bad or good for the lungs? What is the purpose of the pulmonary surfactant in its relation to T? [max 15-20 minutes, 1 page max, draw figures if you want to--but explanation given in words will determine marks] Surface Tension: Cohesive forces between neighboring molecules within the liquid. At the surface, the forces are with neighbors in the surface layer and with molecules within; forming a strong surface force measured in Joules/m^2 Surface tension is bad for the lungs when it prevents the alveoli from expanding during expiration. Pulmonary surfactant reduces T so that alveoli can expand more during inspiration 3. What are Poiseulle's law, Pascal's law, Boyle's law, Fick's law [20 minutes, 1 page; NO figures] Boyle’s Law: P V 1 1 V 2 2 Poiseuille’s Law: R α (Ln)/r 4 Pascal’s Law: pressure due to difference in elevation within a fluid column is given by:P=pgh p= density of fluid g= acceleration due to gravity h= depth below surface Fick’s Law Rate of diffusion α SA x [ ] x membrane permeability Membrane thickness 4. How does the pleural sac help to stretch lungs? [ 10-15 minutes + 1 figure; description more important than the figure] Pleural sac is double walled (parietal, and visceral), and is made of elastic tissue. There is pleural fluid between the two walls creating lots of force between the membranes. During inspiration, the parietal pleura membrane will pull on the inner membrane which will then pull on the lungs to stretch the lungs increasing the size. The force between the membranes allows this. 5. How does the wet spirometer work? OR what is the pricinple of a wet spirometer? [15 minutes + figure]. • 2 chambers: o One large chamber filled with water o One inverted chamber partially submerged in water inside the first chamber • Breathing tube connected to the inverted chamber. Air breathed out goes into inverted chamber • Breathing air into the inverted chamber will cause the inverted chamber to rise. The rise can be measured according to a scale A wet Spirometermeasures lung volumes based on the simple mechanical principle that air, exhaled from the lungs, will cause displacement of a closedchamber that is partially submerged in water. 6. Draw and describe tidal volume, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory reserve volume, residual volume, inspiratory capacity, vital capacity, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity. [both the figure and description are important; 30 minutes, 2 pages; you can have a part of the question]. What is dead space? • Tidal volume: air displaced between normal inhalation, and exhalation • Expiratory reserve volume: The volume of air that can still be pushed out after normal exhalation • Inspiratory reserve volume: Volume of air that can still be inspired after normal inspiration • Residual volume: Remaining volume of air remaining in the lungs after maximal exhalation • Inspiratory capacity: Maximal volume that can be inspired following normal expiration • Vital capacity: Maximal volume that can be inspired following maximal expiration • Functional residual capacity: Amount of air remaining in lungs after a normal tidal expiration • Total lung capacity: Total volume of air the lung can sustain • Dead space: Air that does not participate in gas exchange 7. Using various respiratory muscles and the thoracic cavity, describe inspiration and expiration. [ 20 minutes for description, no figure expected] • Inspiration (active) o Contraction of diaphragm moves muscle towards abdomen (down) o Contraction of external intercostals lifts ribs #2-10 up and outwards o Size of thoracic cavity is increased, pressure reduced. Air rushes in. Air is filtered, warmed, and humidified along the way to the lungs o Accessory muscles for extremely rapid inspiration:  Scalenes lift 1 two ribs  Sternocleido-mastoids lift sternum up • Expiration (active or passive) o Natural recoil during normal breathing (passive) o Contraction of abdominal muscles pushes diaphragm up o Contraction of internal intercostals opposes external intercostals o Volume in thoracic cavity decreases, pressure increases, and air flows out 8. Briefly describe pulmonary circulation. Draw its various components. [20 minutes, half a page of writing + figure] • Circulation of deoxygenated blood from pulmonary arteries to lungs. • Gas exchange occurs at alveoli in the lungs. CO2 removed, O2 gained • Oxygenated blood flows back into heart via pulmonary veins 9. On the same time scale explain changes in alveolar pressure, intra-pleural pressure and volume of air in the lungs during one complete respiratory cycle. • Alveolar pressure: o During inspiration, reduction of pressure in thoracic cavity reduces
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