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Chapter 17

BPK 205 Chapter Notes - Chapter 17: Lung Volumes, High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema, Functional Residual Capacity

Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course Code
BPK 205
Parveen Bawa

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Dr. Walsh has added two more questions:
1) describe respiratory alkalosis
2) as described in lecture, how does high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) occur, and what are its
Practice Questions for Chapters17 and 18
1. Starting from the nose and all the way to the alveoli, draw and describe the structure
of the airways for respiration. [Max 20 minutes, 1 page +figure]
Thoracic cavity:
oMade up of respiratory muscles and bones
o3 sacs:
Pericardial sac encloses heart
2 pleural sacs enclose lungs
oMajor blood vessels related to heart, lungs, esophagus
oFlexible tube supported by cartilage rings.
Trachea bifurcates into two bronchii. These bronchii keep dividing (22x) until
one reaches cartilage-free terminal branches called bronchioles

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2. What is surface tension T of a liquid? Why is surface tension bad or good for the
lungs? What is the purpose of the pulmonary surfactant in its relation to T? [max 15-20
minutes, 1 page max, draw figures if you want to--but explanation given in words will
determine marks]
Surface Tension: Cohesive forces between neighboring molecules within the liquid. At
the surface, the forces are with neighbors in the surface layer and with molecules within;
forming a strong surface force measured in Joules/m^2
Surface tension is bad for the lungs when it prevents the alveoli from expanding during
Pulmonary surfactant reduces T so that alveoli can expand more during inspiration
3. What are Poiseulle's law, Pascal's law, Boyle's law, Fick's law [20 minutes, 1 page; NO
Boyle’s Law: P1V1 = P2V2
Poiseuille’s Law: R α (Ln)/r4
Pascal’s Law: pressure due to difference in elevation within a fluid column is given
p= density of fluid
g= acceleration due to gravity
h= depth below surface
Fick’s Law
Rate of diffusion α SA x [ ] x membrane permeability
Membrane thickness
4. How does the pleural sac help to stretch lungs? [ 10-15 minutes + 1 figure; description
more important than the figure]
Pleural sac is double walled (parietal, and visceral), and is made of elastic tissue. There is
pleural fluid between the two walls creating lots of force between the membranes. During
inspiration, the parietal pleura membrane will pull on the inner membrane which will
then pull on the lungs to stretch the lungs increasing the size. The force between the
membranes allows this.

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5. How does the wet spirometer work? OR what is the pricinple of a wet spirometer? [15
minutes + figure].
2 chambers:
oOne large chamber filled with water
oOne inverted chamber partially submerged in water inside the first
Breathing tube connected to the inverted chamber. Air breathed out goes into
inverted chamber
Breathing air into the inverted chamber will cause the inverted chamber to rise.
The rise can be measured according to a scale
A wet Spirometermeasures lung volumes based on the simple mechanical principle that
air, exhaled from the lungs, will cause displacement of a closedchamber that is partially
submerged in water.
6. Draw and describe tidal volume, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory reserve
volume, residual volume, inspiratory capacity, vital capacity, functional residual capacity,
total lung capacity. [both the figure and description are important; 30 minutes, 2 pages;
you can have a part of the question]. What is dead space?
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