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Chapter 4

BUS 272 Chapter 4: Ch4 Workplace Emotions

Business Administration
Course Code
BUS 272
Sam Thiara

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Ch4 Workplace Emotions, Attitudes, and Stress
LO 1 Emotions in the workplace
Emptions are physiological, behavioral, and psychological episodes experienced
toward an object, person, or event that create a state of readiness.
Directed toward someone or something.
Experiences. Represent changes in our physiological state, psychological
state, and behavior.
Subtle. Fleeting, low-intensity, events that influence our behavior without
our conscious awareness.
Put us in a state of readiness.
Brief events or episodes, positive or negative.
Moods are not directed toward anything in particular and tend to be longer-term
emotional states.
Types of emotions
1. Emotions vary in their level of activation: emotions in a state of readiness
and, are the primary source of a person’s motivation.
2. All emotions evaluate the situation as positive or negative, good or bad,
helpful or harmful. Negative emotions tend to generate stronger level of
activation than do positive emotions.
Evaluationhow to approach a situation—we evaluate if it will be helpful or
harmful, positive or negative, approached or avoided.
Activationthe level of readiness.
Emotions, Attitudes, and Behaviour
Attitudes represent the cluster of beliefs, assessed feelings, and behavioural
intentions toward a person, object, or event.
Attitudes are judgments involve evaluations of an attitude object, emotions
operate as events, usually without our awareness. Attitudes sometimes
operate nonconsciously, but most of the time we are aware of and
consciously think about our attitudes.
Experience most emotions very briefly, where our attitudes toward someone
or something is more stable over time.
Attitudes could be understood by: beliefs, feelings, and behavioural

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Traditional model of attitudes
Beliefs: established perceptions about the attitude object—what you believe to
be true. (Over time)
Feelings: calculation of good or bad, positive or negative based on beliefs about
the attitudes object. (Right or wrong)
Behavioural intentions: motivation to act in response to the attitude object.
Attitude-behaviour contingencies: cognitive model of attitudes (beliefs- fallings-
intentions) gives the impression that we can predict behavior from each element
of an individuals attitude. Also depends on contingencies. Finally, model
indicates that behavioural intentions are the best predictors of a persons
Problem: ignores important role of emotions in shaping attitudes.
How emotions influence attitudes and behavior:
Emotions are usually initiated by perceptions of the world around us. Not
calculated feelings are automatic and non-conscious emotional responses
based on very thin slices of sensory information.

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Attitude toward mergers. Experience upon hearing the merger
announcement, subsequently thinking about the merger, discussing the
merger with co-workers.
Emotions are transmitted to your brain’s cognitive centers, where they are
logically analyzed along with other information about the attitude object.
Feelings and beliefs are influenced by cumulative emotional episodes (not
just evaluation of beliefs)
We listen inon our emotions
Potential conflict between cognitive and emotional processes
Emotions also directly affect behavior
E.g. facial expression (Affect our also others behaviours)
Generation positive emotions at work: emotions shape employee attitudes and,
attitudes influence various forms of work-related behavior.
Cognitive dissonance: a state of anxiety that occurs when individuals beliefs,
feelings, and behaviours are incongruent with each other.
Reduce cognitive dissonance by changing their beliefs and feelings.
1. Develop more favorable toward specific features of the decision
2. Motivated to discover positive feature of the decision they didn’t notice
earlier and to discover subsequent problems with the alternatives they
didnt choose
3. Emphasizing how your other decisions have been frugal
Emotions and personality: individuals with higher emotional stability and
extraverted personalities tend to experience more positive emotions. Higher
neuroticism (lower emotional stability) and introverted personalities tend to
experience more negative emotions.
LO2 Managing Emotions at Work
Emotional labour the effort, planning, and control needed to express
organizationally desires emotions during interpersonal transactions.
Emotional labour higher when job requires:
Frequent and long duration display of emotions
Displaying a variety of emotions
Displaying more intense emotions
Display rules—norms or explicit rules requiring us within our role to display
specific emotions and to hide other emotions.
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