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Chapter 9

BUS 272 Chapter 9: CH9 Communication in Organization


Department
Business Administration
Course Code
BUS 272
Professor
Sam Thiara
Chapter
9

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CH9 Communication in Organization
Communication: the process by which information is transmitted and understood between
two or more people.
Effective communication: transmitting the sender’s intended meaning is the essence of good
communication.
Communication example
Three methods of doing the same thing
Talking to someone in person
Email
Telephone call
LO1 Importance of Communication
1. Critical ingredient for decision making
2. Able to influencing others changing their behavior
3. Work interdependently- Coordinating work activities
4. Supports employee well-being.
5. Coordination, knowledge enters the organization and is distributed to employees
Vehicle for organizational learning
6. Supports employee well-being: conveys knowledge that kelps employees to better
manage their work environment.
7. Speak assertively. Communication style.
A Model of Communication
Communication flows through channels between the sender and receiver.
The sender forms a message and recodes it into words, gestures, voice intonations, and
other symbols or signs. Next, the encodes message is transmitted to the intended receiver
through one or more communication channels.
The receiver senses the incoming message and decodes it into something meaningful. The
meaning is what the sender had intended.
Sender looks for evidence that the other person has received and understood the
transmitted message in some situations. These feedback may be formal acknowledgment or

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indirect evidence from the receiver’s subsequent actions. Feedback repeats the
communication process
Communication is not a free-flowing conduit.
The transmission of meaning from one person to another is hampered by noise —the
psychological, social, and structural barriers that distort and obscure the sender’s intended
massage.
If any part of the communication process is distorted or broken, the sender and receiver will
not have a common understand of the message.
Influences on Effective Encoding and Decoding
Both parties are motivated and able to communicate through the channel
Ability of sender and receiver to efficiently and accurately encode and decode
information.
The sender and receiver have similar codebooks, the sender’s proficiency at encoding
the message to the audience, the sender and receiver’s motivation and ability to
transmit messages through that particular communication channel, and their common
mental models of the communication context.
Both parties share similar mental models of the communication context
Sender is experienced at communicating the message topic
Similar codebooks—sender and receiver rely on internal “code-books”, dictionaries of
symbols, language, gestures, idioms, and other tools used to convey information. Symbols
used to convey message content. With similar codebooks, the communication participants
can encode and decode more accurately as they assign the same or similar meaning to the
transmitted symbols and signs. Communication efficient also improves because there is less
need for redundancy and confirmation feedback.
Message encoding proficiency—through experience, people fine-tune the presentation so
the audience receives your message more efficiently and effectively.
Communication channel motivation and ability—the encoding-decoding process depends on
the sender’s and receiver’s motivation and ability to use the selected communication
channel. (Face-2-face conversation/texting). Even if parties have the same codebooks and
are skilled at using those codebooks for a particular message, message encoding and
decoding can be hampered by a communication channel that the sender, receiver or both
dislike or in which they lack proficiency.
Shared mental models of the communication context—mental models are internal
representations of the external world that allow us to visualize elements of a setting and
relationships among those elements.
A sender and receiver with shared mental models of the communication context have
similar imaged and expectations regarding the location, time, layout, and other
contextual features of the information.
Increase the accuracy of the message content and reduce the need for communication
about that context.
Mental model is a knowledge structures of the communication setting. Codebooks are
symbols used to convey messages content.

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LO2 Communication Channels
Two main types of channel: verbal and nonverbal
Verbal communication channels: use word, includes both spoken and written channels.
Nonverbal communication channels: any part of communication that does not use
words.
Internet- Based Communication (How email has altered communication)
Email tends to be the preferred medium for sending well-defined information for decision
making.
It is also central for coordinating work
Increase the volume of communication and significantly altered the flow of that information
within groups and throughout the organization
Significantly alters communication flow
Specifically, it reduced some face-2-face and telephone communication but increased
communication with people further up the hierarchy.
Reduces stereotype biases
However, might increase reliance on stereotypes when we are already aware of the other
person’s personal characteristics.
Problems With Email
Poor medium for communication emotions (communicates emotions poorly)
People rely on facial expressions and other nonverbal cues to interpret the emotional
meaning of wards; email lacks this parallel communication channel. People consistently and
significantly overestimate the degree to which they understand the emotional tone of email
messages.
Email recipients invariably inject their own emotional perspective into interpreting the
message text and resort to other email-specific cues. They may perceive email as more
intensely negative than senders intend.
Employees experience significant stress and a resultant loss of productivity because of email
overload, and this has led some large corporations to adopt email-free zones and some
governments to promote rules to protect workers from email excess.
Reduces politeness and respect
Flaming—email and other electronic messages that convey strong negative emotions to
the receiver
Poor medium (inefficient) for ambiguous, complex, and novel situations
Communication channels that transmit a larger volume of information with more rapid
feedback, when the issue gets messy, stop emailing and start talking, preferably face-to-face
Contributions to information overload (increases information overload)
Email glut occurs partly because messages are created and copied to many people without
much effort
Workplace Communication Through Social Media
Emerging forms of social media may eventually overtake email
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