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Chapter 4

BUS 272 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Distributive Justice, Job Satisfaction, Individual And Group Rights

Business Administration
Course Code
BUS 272
Graeme Coetzer

of 8
Chapter 2 Individual Behaviour, Personality, and Values
MARS Model of Individual Behaviour and Performance
Motivation the forces within a person that affect his or her direction, intensity, and
persistence of voluntary behaviour
o Direction path along which ppl engage their effort; goal-directed, not random
o Intensity how much you push yourself to complete the task
o Persistence continuing the effort for a certain amount of time
o Natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task
Aptitudes natural talents that help employees learn specific tasks faster and
perform them better
Learned capabilities skills and knowledge you actually acquired
o Competences skills, knowledge, aptitudes and other personal characteristics that lead
to superior performance
Challenge is to match a person’s competencies w/ what each job requires –
strategy is to select employees whose existing competencies best fit the
required tasks
Role Perceptions the accuracy of how ppl understand their job duties (roles) assigned to them
or expected of them
o 3 components
When employees understand specific tasks assigned to them know specific
duties and consequences for which they’re responsible
When they understand the priority of their various tasks and performance
Understanding the preferred behaviours to accomplish the assigned tasks
Situational Factors
o Employee behaviour and performance also depends on how well the situation supports
task goals conditions beyond the employee’s immediate control that constrain
facilitate behaviour and performance
Personality in Organizations
Personality the relatively enduring pattern of thoughts, emotions, and behaviours that
characterize a person, along w/ the psychological processes behind those characteristics
o Bundle of characteristics that makes us similar or different from other ppl estimate
Personality theory ppl have inherent characteristics or traits that can be identified by the
consistency or stability of their behaviour across time and situation; attributes a person’s
behaviour to smt w/in them (personality) rather than purely environmental influences
Personality determinants Nature vs. Nurture
o Most experts agree that personality is shaped by both nature and nurture, but the
relative importance is debated
o Nature genetic and hereditary origins
Has a large effect on personality up to 50% of variation in behaviour and 30%
of temperament differences can be attributed to genes
o Nurture socialization, life experiences, other forms of interaction w/ the environment
Stability of a person’s personality increases up to at least age 30 – 50
personality development and change occurs when ppl are young
Executive function (part of brain that manages goal-directed behaviour) tries to
keep behaviour consistent w/ self-concept
Five-Factor (CANOE) Model of Personality
5 abstract dimensions representing most personality traits
o Conscientiousness personality dimension describing ppl who are careful, dependable,
and self-disciplined
o Agreeableness traits of being courteous, good-natured, empathetic, and caring
o Neuroticism personality dimension descripting ppl with high levels of anxiety, hostility,
depression and self-consciousness
o Openness to experience extent to which ppl are imaginative, creative, curious, and
aesthetically sensitive
o Extroversion characterizes ppl who are outgoing, talkative, sociable and assertive
These are not independent of each other: conscientiousness, agreeable ness and low
neuroticism represent underlying characteristic of “getting along”, while other two dimensions
share common underlying factor of “getting ahead”
Strong associations b/w personality and variety of workplace behaviours and outcomes:
Conscientiousness and emotional stability best predict individual performance; others are
associated w/ more specific types of employee behaviour
Jungian Personality Theory and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Carl Jung proposed that personality is primarily represented by the individual’s preferences
regarding perceiving and judging information
o How ppl gather information
Sensing (S) perceiving info directly through 5 senses; relies on organized
structure to acquire factual and preferably quantitative details; focus on the
here and now
Intuition (I) relies on insight and subjective experience to see relationships
among variables; focus on future possibilities
o How ppl process information
Thinking (T) rely on rational cause-effect logic and systematic data
Feeling (F) rely on emotional responses to options presented, and how
those choices affect others
o Introversion (I) vs. Extroversion (E)
o Perceiving (P) open, curious, flexible, spontaneous, like to keep options open; vs.
Judging (J) prefer order and structure, want to resolve problems quickly
MBTI a personality test that measures each of the traits in Jung’s model
o Reasonably good at measuring Jung’s psychological types and improves self-
awareness, but it poorly measures job performance and isn’t generally
recommended for employment selection or promotion decisions
Self-Concept: The “I” in OB
Self-concept an individual’s self-beliefs and self-evaluations “Who am I? How do I feel
about myself?”
o Ppl develop, nurture, and act in ways that enhance their self-concept
Ppl don’t have a single unitary self-concept think of themselves in several ways in various
o has more complexity when it consists of many categories
o varies in degree of consistency
High consistency when similar traits/values are required across all aspects;
low consistency when situations require traits that conflict w/ those of
other parts of self
o Clarity degree to which a person’s self-conception are clearly and confidently
described, internally consistent, and stable across time; usually develops clarity as
they get older
Above 3 factors influence adaptability and well-being the stronger the three, the better
you function
Self-enhancement and self-verification
o Self-enhancement Desire to feel valued key ingredient in self-concept
Inherently motivated to promote/protect a self-view of being competent,
attractive, ethical, etc.
Positive consequences better physical and mental health
Negative consequences bad decisions (e.g. overestimate probability of
success in investment decisions)
o Self-verification motivation to verify and maintain existing self-concept; stabilizes
self-concept which provides important anchor to guide thoughts and actions
Differs from self-enhancement in that ppl prefer feedback that is consistent
w/ self-concept even if it is negative
Affects perceptual process more likely to remember info that is
consistent w/ self-concept
More confident employees in their self-concept are less likely to
accept feedback that is at odds w/ their self-concept
Employees are motivated to interact w/ others who affirm their
self-concept, which affects how well they will get along w/ others
Self-evaluation defined in terms of three concepts:
o Self-esteem the extent to which ppl like, respect, and are satisfied w/ themselves
Represents a global self-evaluation; w/ regards to specific aspects of oneself,
predicts specific thoughts and behaviours, whereas overall self-esteem
predicts broad thoughts/behaviours