BUS 272 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Consensus Decision-Making, Cubic Metre, Job Satisfaction

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Ch. 3 – Values, Attitudes, and Diversity in the Workplace
- values affect our behaviours & attitudes, can have big impact on how ppl w/ diff backgrounds get along
in workplace
- values = basic convictions that “specific mode of conduct/end-state of existence is personally/socially
preferable to opposite/converse mode of conduct/end-state of existence”
 content attribute = says mode of conduct/end-state of existence is important
 intensity attribute = how important it is
- value system = ranking of indiv’s values in terms of their intensity
- values relatively stable & enduring
- most values formed in early years w/ input from parents, teachers, friends, others
 told certain behaviours/outcomes always desirable/always undesirable
 this absolute black/white characteristic of values ensures stability
- Rokeach Value Survey
 terminal values = desirable end-states of existence, goals indivs would like to achieve in lifetime
 i.e. prosperous life, equality, happiness, etc
 instrumental values = preferred modes of behaviour, means for achieving terminal values
 i.e. ambitious, open-minded, courageous, imaginative, etc
 balance b/t terminal & instrumental important
- Hofstede’s Framework for Assessing Cultures
 power distance = degree to which ppl in country accept that power in institutions & orgs
distributed unequally
 high rating: large inequalities of power & wealth exist & tolerated in culture, as in caste
system
 low rating: society stresses equality & opportunity
 individualism vs. collectivism
 individualism = degree to which ppl prefer to act as indivs rather than members of
groups, believe in indiv rights above all else
 collectivism = tight social framework in which ppl expect others in same group to look
after them & protect them
 masculinity vs. femininity
 masculinity = degree to which culture favours traditional masculine roles (achievement,
power, control) as opposed to viewing men/women as equals
 high masculinity: culture has separate roles for men & women, w/ men dominating
society
 high femininity: culture sees little differentiation b/t male & female roles, treats women
as equals of men in all respects
 uncertainty avoidance = degree to which ppl in country prefer structured over unstructured
situations
 high rating: ppl have increased level of anxiety about uncertainty & ambiguity, use laws &
controls to reduce uncertainty
 low rating: more accepting of ambiguity, less rule-oriented, take more risks, more readily
accept change
 long-term vs. short-term orientation
 long-term orientation = look to future & value thrift, persistence, tradition
 short-term orientation = value here & now, accept change more readily & don’t see
commitments as impediments to change
 indulgence vs. restraint = measures society’s devotion/lack thereof to indulgence
 indulgence = encourage relatively free gratification of basic & natural human desires
related to enjoying life
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 restraint = emphasize need to control gratification of needs
- when indiv values align w/ org values, results are positive
 more positive work attitudes, lower turnover, greater productivity
- indivs who have accurate understanding of job requirements & org’s values adjust better to jobs & have
greater levels of satisfaction & org commitment
- 2 major factors lead to potential clash of value sin Canadian workplace:
1) generational differences 2) cultural differences
- Baby Boomers = born after WWII
 brought w/ them “hippie ethic” & distrust of authority
 place emphasis on achievement & material success
 pragmatists, believe ends can justify means, work hard to enjoy fruits of their labours
 see orgs that employ them merely as vehicles for their careers
 terminal values: sense of accomplishment & social recognition rank high
- Generation X = shaped by globalization, 2 career parents, computers
 value flexibility, life options, achievement of job satisfaction
 fam & relationships v important
 less willing to make personal sacrifices for employer than previous gen
 terminal values: true friendship, happiness, pleasure rank high
- Millennials = grew up during prosperous times, high expectations & seek meaning in work
 life goals more oriented toward becoming rich & famous than previous generations
 socially responsible, at ease w/ diversity
 take technology for granted
 questioning, electronically networked, entrepreneurial
 some say entitled & needy, grew up w/ parents praising their every move
 may clash w/ other gens over work attire & communication
 want frequent & candid performance feedback
- Francophone vs. Anglophone values
 Canadian Anglophone managers more individualistic than Francophone
 Francophones more concerned about interpersonal aspects of workplace than task competence,
more committed to work orgs
 Anglophone managers value autonomy & intrinsic job values (achievement)
 Francophone managers value affiliation & extrinsic job values (technical supervision)
 Canadian Francophones do well in joint ventures, business negotiations & other org interactions
that involve more divergent cultural groups
 now, Canadian Francophones & Anglophones haves less diffs
- Aboriginal values
 sustainability in Aboriginal logging companies
 for every cubic metre harvested, Alexis Creek First Nations-owned company puts $0.50
back into post-secondary edu fund to train next gen of loggers
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 reluctance to compete, time orientation diff from Western one, emphasis on consensus decision
making
 seen by non-Aboriginals as impediment to dvlpt & effectiveness
 more likely to advance goals of community
 greater sense of family in workplace, greater affiliation & loyalty
 power distance smaller than non-Aboriginal cultures, fewer rules, lower uncertainty avoidance
- Asian values
 Chinese largest visible minority group in Canada (26% of pop)
 greater power distance & greater collectivism
 guanxi = est of connection b/t 2 independent indivs to enable bilateral flow of personal/social
transactions
 both parties must derive benefits from transaction to ensure continuation of such
relationship
 based on reciprocation, vs. Western networked relationships based on self-interest
 long-term & enduring, vs. immediate gains in Western relationship
 governed more by external pressures on performance (shame) vs. Western internal
pressures on performance (guilt) to maintain agreements
- attitudes = evaluative statements (pos/neg) about objects, ppl, events & reflect how we feel about sth
 3 components
1) cognition = description of/belief in way things are
2) affect = emotional/feeling segment of attitude
3) behaviour = intention to behave in certain way toward someone/sth
- attitudes important b/c affect job behaviour
- 5 attitudes that affect org performance
1) job satisfaction
2) organizational commitment
3) job involvement
4) perceived organizational support
5) employee engagement
- job satisfaction = positive feeling about job resulting from evaluation of its characteristics
 positively correlated w/ life satisfaction
 interdependence, feedback, social support & interaction w/ co-workers outside workplace
strongly related to job satisfaction
 once indiv reaches level of comfortable living, relationship b/t pay & job satisfaction virtually
disappears
 money motivates us, but what motivates us does not necessarily make us happy
 ppl who have positive core self-evaluations (indiv sees self as capable) more satisfied w/ jobs
 correlation b/t job satisfaction & job performance strong
 orgs w/ more satisfied employees tend to be more effective
 job satisfaction moderately correlated w/ OCB
 satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction & loyalty
 moderate relationship b/t job satis & absenteeism b/c other factors, but stronger w/ turnover
 focus on job satis over time, may change
 employees embedded in their jobs & communities help lower probability of turnover,
particularly in collectivistic cultures
- 4 employee responses to job dissatisfaction:
1) exit = actively attempting to leave org
2) voice = actively & constructively attempting to improve conditions
 suggesting improvements, discussing problems w/ supervisors, etc
3) loyalty = passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve
 trusting org & management to do “right thing”
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