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Chapter 3

BUS 362 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Business Process Automation, Business Process Reengineering, Requirements Analysis

Business Administration
Course Code
BUS 362
Drew Parker

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Chapter 3 – Requirements Analysis
SDLC is process by which org. moves from as-is (current) system to to-be
(new) system
Outputs from planning phase: system request, feasibility study, project plan
Analysis = breaking a whole into its parts in order to understand the parts’
nature, function, and interrelationships
Final deliverable of analysis phase is the system proposal
oIf accepted, on to design phase
oA bit of overlap btwn the two – deliverables from analysis phase are
really the 1st step in design
In many ways, the requirements determination step is the single most critical
one of the whole SDLC
Failing to determine the correct requirements is a major cause of project
Requirements Determination
What is a Requirement?
Requirements = statement of what the system must do or what
characteristics it needs to have
Analysis stage reqs. focus on business needs, so they are often called
business requirements
oFunctional = relates directly to a process the system has to perform or
info it needs to contain (eg. able to search for inventory)
Either process-oriented or information-oriented
oNonfunctional = behavioural properties that the system must have,
such as performance and usability (eg. user interface)
Cultural and political (eg. currency, company policy)
Requirements Definition
Straightforward text report lists functional/nonfunctional requirements in an
outline format
Sometimes reqs. might be ranked/prioritized
Most obvious purpose: provide info needed by other deliverables in the
analysis phase
Most important purpose: define the scope of the system – it tells analysts
exactly what the final system needs to do
Establishes users’ expectations for system
Determining Requirements
Need both business and IT perspectives
Study by Standish Group: lack of user involvement = top reason for IT project

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The analyst will use one of the several techniques to acquire info from users,
and then critically analyze it and use it to craft the requirements definition
Creating the Requirements Definition
Iterative and ongoing process throughout analysis phase
1) Determine the kinds of functional/nonfunctional requirements they will
2) Use requirement-gathering techniques to collect info and list business
requirements identified
3) Work with entire project team and users to verify/change/complete the
list and help prioritize
Key to project success: keeping requirements list tight and focused
Requirements Analysis Techniques
Process involves 3 steps:
oUnderstanding the existing situation (as-is)
oIdentify improvements
oDefine requirements for new system (to-be)
Note that requirements analysis and requirements-gathering go hand in
hand; they happen concurrently and are complementary activities
3 requirements analysis techniques, discussed below
Business Process Automation (BPA)
Used when basic business reqs outline in system request focus on employing
computer technology in some aspect of the business process, but leave the
basic manner in which the organization operates unchanged
Improve organizational efficiency, but have least impact/value for the
Two popular activities in the BPA technique:
oProblem Analysis (most straightforward and commonly used)
Ask users/managers to identify problems with the as-is system
and describe how to solve them
Improvements tend to be small/incremental – no significant
Tend only to address symptoms to underlying problems
oRoot Cause Analysis
Focuses on problems first, rather than solutions
Users generate list of problems and prioritized them
Users/analysts then generate all possible root causes until true
underlying cause(s) is revealed
Business Process Improvement (BPI)
Basic business requirements target moderate changes to the organization’s
Can improve efficiency and effectiveness
Primary focus is on improving business processes, less focus on as-is system
Three popular activities in the BPI technique:
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