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CRIM 101 (121)
Chapter 11

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CRIM 101
Kamal Masri

Chapter 11 How Can Information Systems Be Acquired?  Higher customization  higher costs  Four methods for acquiring software applications o Buy and use as is o Buy it and customize it  most common method o Rent/lease it o Build it yourself  Acquiring IS requires further integration into technological infrastructure + integration into data, procedures,  people. o  Acquiring systems is more complex than just acquiring software  Cost of integration is higher than cost of the software What Are Projects, What is IT Project Management, and What Does PMBOK Mean?  PMBOK notes a project “consists of a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, result” o 5 groups – initiating, planning, executing, controlling, monitoring, closing  All related to 9 project knowledge areas  Integration management  Scope management  Time management  Cost management  Quality management  Human resource management  Communications management  Projects contain o Goals, objectives for something new and complete o Resources such as people, money, working space o Start/end date  IT Projects – o Large IT component o Ex. Installation of new email applications o Projects that require fundamental changes to business processes because IT supports change in business processes o Affect data, people, procedures  Information Technology Project Management (ITPM) – collection of techniques and methods that project managers use to plan, coordinate, and complete IT projects. o Tools – breakdown structures, budgeting methods, graphical scheduling methods such as PERT (Program Evaluation Review Technique), Gantt charts, risk management techniques, communication planning, high tech team development  PMI has certified 260,000 project management professionals (PMPs) o Also offers Certified Associate in Project Management (CAPM)  an introduction to project management  23 hours of education, 150 question 3 hour exam following  International Project Manager offers Certified Project Manager certification  Project Management Association of Canada offers Project Management Competency certification  Canadian Coalition for Tomorrow’s ICT Skills o Suggests business professionals who have the knowledge, skills, personal qualities to lead and support effective, competitive use of IT o Technical knowledge an asset for PM, but more important ability to communicate with technical and business orientated people about objectives and challenges Why are IT Projects So Risky?  CHAOS Report o Created by Standish Group in 1994 o States 16% of IT Projects delivered on time, on budget, on scope o 30% of IT Projects cancelled before delivering benefits  Later report by Sauer, Gemino, and Horner Reich o 66% of all projects completed o 9% cancelled o Failure rate of 25%, regardless of size  Lack of good model  project definitions difficult to understand how things will look and how the end behaviour is  Estimate costs are difficult to determine as technology is continually changing  Difficult to estimate how far project is to completion, and the longer it takes the more requirements are changing  Primary risks do not emerge from technology, in 52 item list by Wallace and Keil problems include o Lack of experience in team o Lack of support from top management o Lack of participation from system users o Unclear and uncertain project requirements o High level of technical complexity o Changes in project environment  Pg 330 model 11-2 for temporal model of IT project performance/risks o IT Project risk  Forces of evil  Structural risk o Too high  project too large/technically complex o Associated with levels of volatile risk  Volatility risk o High lower project process performance o May be lowered with organizational support  Project process performance o Lower scores tend to be with larger projects  Forces of good  Knowledge resources o Help create virtuous cycle of improved performance  Organizational support & Project Management Practices o Increased levels of process performance and project product performance  Both process/product performance  All items are positively correlated  higher ratings of one thing will lead to higher ratings of others  Performance evaluated on whether project was on time/budget  project process performance  Expected benefits from project were realized  project product performance What are systems analysis and Design, and SDLC?  System analysis and design – creating and maintaining IS  Skills required – o building computer networks, o writing computer programs, o implementing data models, o establishing system goals, o setting up project, o determining requirements, interviewing users/understanding views of business, designing procedures o All require business knowledge and understanding of group dynamics  Systems development o Requires specialists AND non-specialists with business knowledge o Agile methods  Rapid application development (RAD)  Object-orientated systems development (OOD)  Extreme Programming (XP)  Systems development life cycle (SDLC) o Classical process to acquire IS o 5 phase process developed in 1970 by PMs to successfully acquire and maintain IS  System definition  Use management statement of system needs to begin to define new system  Requirement analysis  Begins with results from system definition  Identify features/function of new system  Component design  Primary input comes from output of requirement analysis (approved user requirements)  Implementation  Implement, test, install new system  Error found by users over time   System maintenance  Description of fixes and patches for errors o Acquisition begins when business planning process identifies need for new system o Step 1 – Defining Systems  Define system goals/scope  Development team defines goal/purpose of new system to support business processes or improve decision making  Simplifies requirement determination and other subsequent development work  Access Feasibility  Create business case  try to eliminate unnecessary projects and avoid investing unneeded labour  4 dimensions o Cost  Approximate, due to being difficult to budget/schedule o Schedule  Approximate, due to being difficult to budget/schedule   Try to eliminate infeasible ideas ASAP o Technical  Whether existing IT is able to meet needs of new system o Organizational  Whether new system fits within organization’s customs, culture, charter, legal requirements
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