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Chapter 7

HIST 255 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Second Sino-Japanese War, Zhang Xueliang, South Manchuria Railway


Department
History
Course Code
HIST 255
Professor
Jeremy Brown
Chapter
7

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Week 7: Fighting for survival
Wednesday, February 22, 2017 5:36 AM
JAPANESE IMPERIALISM IN THE NANJING DECADE
Sino-Japanese War (Taiwan); Russo-Japanese War (Manchurian key ports and South Manchurian Railway)
Sept 18 1931: young officers in Japan's Kwantung Army set off explosion along the railway to force gov't into
action
Unplanned expansion of the Japanese Empire
Zhang Xueliang, with order from Chiang, withdrew Northeast army without a fight
Chinese public: public demonstrations boycott of Japanese goods
"Mukden Incident": Japanese landed marines in Shanghai => five weeks of fighting, Japanese aerial
bombardment of the city; also withdrew from League of Nations to avoid investigation and
condemation
"Manchukuo": no Chinese resistance = Japanese declare liberation of Manchu homeland from
Chinese rule
Aisin Gioro Puyi: last Qing emperor, brought in to rule "Manchu homeland" as puppet
emperor
Japanese: set up educational system to teach children that "Manchukuo" is different from
China with historical links to Japan
Korean farmers brought in
Japanese: invest into Manchurian coal mines, iron and steelworks and factories - one of the
largest industrial bases in the world
1935: Japan forced Chiang gov't to allow Japanese troops freedom of movement in bordering
areas: Hebei, Chahar, Inner Mongolia (Japanese supported Mongolian nationalist movements)
Chiang focused on military modernization and the fight against Communist Party = politically disastrous
CRITICISM from intellectuals, students and Communists themselves: question Chiang's national
sovereignty & agreed that Chinese should fight common enemy, not each other
Chiang to weaken potentially troublesome warlords: Yang Hucheng (Northwestern Army) and Zhang Xueliang
(Northeast Army) to surround Communist base area of Yan'an
Yang + Zhang + Communist Party representatives = anti-Chiang "Northwestern Alliance"
"Xi'an Incident": Chiang concerned about loyalty of warlords: stayed at hot springs outside the city
Zhang Xueliang's bodyguards shot their way into the compound and captured Chiang
Strike a deal: Chiang could gain his freedom in return for a promise to relieve pressure on the
Communists and take a stronger stand against Japanese encroachment on Chinese territory
Sent to Nanjing for trial: Yang Hucheng (executed) and Zhang (house arrest)
Jul 7, 1937: Japanese troops on patrol near Marco Polo Bridge (outskirts of Beiping) - exchanged shots with
Chinese they believed to have taken missing soldier, soldier showed up later
Japanese: solve "China problem" once and for all
Japanese troops move south from Beiping toward Yellow River
NATIONALISTS AND COMMUNISTS IN THE WAR OF RESISTANCE AGAINST JAPAN
=> War of Resistance Against Japan (1937-45): fifteen to twenty million dead, ninety-five million refugees,
property damage of upward one hundred billion
First stage (1937-41): Chiang's government fought the Japanese with relatively little foreign support; GMD, CCP,
and regional warlords worked together
Japanese troops on offensive in N. China = Chiang opened second front (bombing raid) in river off Shanghai
(Aug 1937)
PURPOSE: to force Jap to fight in the Shanghai area, where Chiang's best German-trained armies
outnumbered the Japanese by ten to one
Japs advantage = field artillery and complete control of the air
By mid-Nov: Japanese were advancing rapidly from the coast toward Nanjing
"Rape of Nanjing" (Dec 13): Japanese officers allowed their men to carry out a massive slaughter of
surrendered Chinese soldiers and Chinese civilians + rape, torture and looting
Nanjing lost = Nationalist government move to Wuhan; Chinese ultimately retreat b/c of Japs
Chiang's desperate attempt to slow Japs: Chiang ordered troops to breach Yellow River dikes at
Huayuankou – flood over three provinces; little effect
By end of 1938: China lost most of industrial infrastructure and main sources of prewar tax revenue
1938-45: three Chinas = Japanese-occupied (+ regional warlords and their armies to establish coop Chinese
gov't as alt to Chiang's govt) areas in the east, the more rural interior regions of the west under Chiang Kai-
shek's Chongqing gov't and the Communist base area centered on Yan'an in the northwest
Wang Jingwei: chose to go to Japanese; became president of an alternative national gov't in Nanjing
Believed that Japanese sponsorship = new modern China
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