Psychology Chapter 14: Theories of Personality
Personality: A distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behaviour, thoughts, motives, and emotions that
characterizes an individual.
Trait: A characteristic of an individual, describing a habitual way of behaving, thinking, or feeling.
Psychoanalysis: A theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy developed by Freud; it emphasizes
unconscious motives and conflicts
Psychodynamic Theories that explain behaviour and personality in terms of unconscious energy dynamic within
Theories: the individual
Id: In psychoanalysis, the part of personality containing inherited psychic energy, particularly
sexual and aggressive instincts
Libido: In psychoanalysis, the psychic energy that fuels the life or sexual instincts of the id
Ego: In psychoanalysis, the part of personality that represents reason, good sense, and rational self-
Superego: In psychoanalysis, the part of personality that represents conscience, morality, and social
Defence Mechanisms: Methods used by the ego to prevent unconscious anxiety or threatening thoughts from
Psychosexual Stages: In Freud’s theory, the idea that sexual energy takes different forms as the child matures; the
stages are oral, anal, phallic (Oedipal), latency, and genital.
Oedipus Complex: In psychoanalysis, a conflict occurring in the phallic (Oedipal) stage, in which a child desires the
parent of the other sex and views the same-sex parent as a rival
Collective Unconscious: In Jungian theory, the universal memories and experiences of humankind, represented in the
symbols, stories, and images (archetypes) that occur across all cultures.
Archetypes: Universal, symbolic images that appear in myths, art, stories, and dreams; to Jungians, they
reflect the collective unconscious.
Object-Relations A psychodynamic approach that emphasizes the importance of the infant’s first two years of
School: life and the baby’s formative relationships, especially with the mother.
Objective Tests: Aka inventories; Standardized questionnaires requiring written responses; they typically include
scales on which people are asked to rate themselves
Factor Analysis: A statistical method for analyzing the intercorrelations among various measures or scores that
are highly correlated are assumed to measure the same underlying trait or ability (factor).
Temperaments: Physiological depositions to respond to the environment in certain ways; they are present in
infancy and in many nonhuman species and are assumed to be innate
Heritability: A statistical estimate of the proportion of the total variance in some trait that is attributable to
genetic differences among individuals within a group Reciprocal In social-cognitive theories, the two-way interaction between aspects of the environment and
Determination: aspects of the individual in the shaping of personality traits.
Nonshared Unique aspects of a person’s environment and experience that are not shar