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PSYC 1030H (44)
Chapter 14

Psychology Chapter 14 glossary.docx

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Trent University
PSYC 1030H
Brenda Smith- Chant

Psychology Chapter 14: Theories of Personality Personality: A distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behaviour, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes an individual. Trait: A characteristic of an individual, describing a habitual way of behaving, thinking, or feeling. Psychoanalysis: A theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy developed by Freud; it emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts Psychodynamic Theories that explain behaviour and personality in terms of unconscious energy dynamic within Theories: the individual Id: In psychoanalysis, the part of personality containing inherited psychic energy, particularly sexual and aggressive instincts Libido: In psychoanalysis, the psychic energy that fuels the life or sexual instincts of the id Ego: In psychoanalysis, the part of personality that represents reason, good sense, and rational self- control. Superego: In psychoanalysis, the part of personality that represents conscience, morality, and social standards Defence Mechanisms: Methods used by the ego to prevent unconscious anxiety or threatening thoughts from entering consciousness Psychosexual Stages: In Freud’s theory, the idea that sexual energy takes different forms as the child matures; the stages are oral, anal, phallic (Oedipal), latency, and genital. Oedipus Complex: In psychoanalysis, a conflict occurring in the phallic (Oedipal) stage, in which a child desires the parent of the other sex and views the same-sex parent as a rival Collective Unconscious: In Jungian theory, the universal memories and experiences of humankind, represented in the symbols, stories, and images (archetypes) that occur across all cultures. Archetypes: Universal, symbolic images that appear in myths, art, stories, and dreams; to Jungians, they reflect the collective unconscious. Object-Relations A psychodynamic approach that emphasizes the importance of the infant’s first two years of School: life and the baby’s formative relationships, especially with the mother. Objective Tests: Aka inventories; Standardized questionnaires requiring written responses; they typically include scales on which people are asked to rate themselves Factor Analysis: A statistical method for analyzing the intercorrelations among various measures or scores that are highly correlated are assumed to measure the same underlying trait or ability (factor). Temperaments: Physiological depositions to respond to the environment in certain ways; they are present in infancy and in many nonhuman species and are assumed to be innate Heritability: A statistical estimate of the proportion of the total variance in some trait that is attributable to genetic differences among individuals within a group Reciprocal In social-cognitive theories, the two-way interaction between aspects of the environment and Determination: aspects of the individual in the shaping of personality traits. Nonshared Unique aspects of a person’s environment and experience that are not shar
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