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Chapter 13

PSYC 1030H Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: 6 Years, Baby Talk, Placenta

3 pages54 viewsWinter 2013

Course Code
PSYC 1030H
Brenda Smith- Chant

of 3
Psychology Chapter 13 Summary
Object Permanence: The understanding, which develops throughout the first year, that an object continues
to exist even when you cannot see it or touch it
Conservation: The understanding that the physical properties of objects, such as the number of items
in a cluster or the amount of liquid in a glass, can remain the same even when their
form or appearance changes
Theory of Mind: A system of beliefs about the way one’s own mind and the minds of others work, and
of how individuals are affected by their beliefs and feelings
Power Assertion: A method of child rearing in which the parent uses punishment and authority to correct
the child’s misbehaviour
Induction: A method of child rearing in which the parent appeals to the child’s own abilities, sense
of responsibility, and feelings for others in correcting the child’s misbehaviour
Gender Identity: The fundamental sense of being male or female; it is independent of whether the
person conforms to the social and cultural rules to gender
Gender Typing: The process by which children learn the abilities, interests, and behaviours associated
with being masculine or feminine in their culture
Self-Regulation: The ability to suppress their initial wish to do something in favour of doing something
else that is not as much fun
Intersexuality: Intersex conditions; conditions in which chromosomal or hormonal anomalies cause a
child to be born with ambiguous genitals, or genitals that conflict with the infant’s
Gender Schema: A cognitive schema (mental network) of knowledge, beliefs, metaphors, and
expectations about what it means to be male or female
- During a woman’s pregnancy, some harmful influences can cross the placental barrier. These influence include
the following:
o German measles (rubella)
o X-rays or other toxic substances like lead
o STDs
o Smoking
o Alcohol
o Other drugs (not prescribed; illegal substances)
- Between 6 and 8 months, babies become weary or fearful of strangers
- Some babies are securely attached they cry/protest if the parent leaves the room; they welcome her back and
then play happily again. They are clearly more attached to the mother than the stranger
- Other babies are insecurely attached insecurity can take two forms
1. The child may be avoidant not caring if the mother leaves the room, making little effort to seek
contact with her on her return and treating the stranger about the same as the mother
2. The child may be anxious or ambivalent resisting contact with the mother at reunion but protesting
loudly if she leaves
- What factors promote insecure attachment?
o Abandonment and deprivation in the first year or two of life
o Parenting that is abusive, neglectful, or erratic because the parent is irresponsible or depressed
o The child’s own genetically influenced temperament
o Stressful circumstances in the child’s family
- Parentese adult use of baby talk
o Helps babies learn the melody and rhythm of their native language
The Early Development of Language
First few months
Babies cry and coo; they respond to emotions and rhythms in voices
4 6 months
Babies begin to recognize key vowel and consonant sounds of their native language
6 months 1 year
Infants’ familiarity with the sound structure of their native language increases and they can
distinguish words from the flow of speech
At 7 months they begin to remember words they have heard but they can’t always recognize the
same word when it is spoken by different people
End of first year
Infants start to name things based on familiar concepts and use symbolic gestures to
18 24 months
Children begin to speak in two- and three-word phrases and understand verbs from the context in
which they occur
2 6 years
Children rapidly acquire new words, inferring their meaning from the grammatical and social
contexts in which they hear them
- Children whose parents encourage them to use gestures acquire larger vocabularies, have better
comprehension, are better listeners, and are less frustrated in their efforts to communicate than children who
are not encouraged to use gestures
- In the 1920’s, Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget proposed a “flower-blooming” theory of cognitive development
- Piaget’s theory of cognitive stages
o According to Piaget, as children develop, their minds constantly adapt to new situations and
experiences. Sometimes they assimilate new information into their existing mental categories
o Children must change their mental categories to accommodate their new experiences
Both processes are constantly interacting
o From birth to age 2, babies are in the sensorimotor stage
The infant learns through concrete actions; thinking consists of coordinating sensory
information with bodily movements
A major accomplishment at this stage is object permanence
o From ages 2 7, the child’s use of symbols and language accelerates the preoperational stage
He believed children still lack the cognitive abilities necessary for understanding abstract
principles and mental operations
A preoperational child knows that Jessie is his sister, but he may not get the reverse operation,
the idea that he is Jessie’s brother
Their thinking is egocentric
Preoperational children cannot grasp the concept of conservation
o From about ages 7 12, children become increasingly able to take other people’s perspectives and
make fewer logical errors. Piaget called this the concrete operations stage because he thought
children’s mental abilities are tied to information that is concrete
They come to understand the principles of conservation, reversibility, and cause and effect.
They learn mental operations, they are able to categorize things
o At age 12-13 to adulthood, people become capable of abstract reasoning and enter the formal
operations stage
They can thing about future possibilities, search systematically for answers to problems, and
draw logical conclusions
- The Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky emphasized the sociocultural influences on children’s cognitive
- Start using private speech, talking to themselves to direct their behaviour
- Once children have language, their cognitive development may proceed in any number of directions, depending
on what adults teach them, what their culture makes possible for them, and the particular environment they
live in
- New reasoning abilities depend on the emergence of previous ones:
1. Cognitive abilities develop in continuous, overlapping waves rather than discrete steps or stages
2. Preschoolers are not as egocentric as Piaget thought
3. Children, even infants, reveal cognitive abilities much earlier than Piaget believed possible
4. Cognitive development is influenced by a child’s culture
Moral Development
- The child’s emerging ability to understand right from wrong, and to behave accordingly, depends on the
emergence of conscience and moral emotions such as shame, guilt, and empathy
- Infants and toddlers who show high levels of distress and irritability are actually more responsive to, and
influenced by, styles of parenting than easygoing babies are
Gender Development
- A person’s gender identity depends on the interactions of genes, prenatal hormones, anatomical structures,
and experiences in life
- At about age 5, most children develop a stable gender identity, a sense of themselves as being male or female
regardless of what they wear or how they behave
- Erik H. Erikson wrote that all individuals go through 8 stages in their lives. Each stage is characterized by what
he called a crisis a particular psychological change that ideally should be resolved before the individual moves
1. Trust vs. mistrust
a. During baby’s 1st year, trust comes with meeting the child’s needs
2. Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
a. Toddler has to be independent without feeling self-conscious
3. Initiative vs. guilt
a. Preschooler developing need to balance new skills with impulsive behaviour and associated
4. Competence vs. inferiority
a. School-age children, learning skills for adult life feel inadequate when they can’t complete
these lessons
5. Identity vs. role confusion
a. Adolescence identity crisis
6. Intimacy vs. isolation
a. Young adulthood you are not complete until you are capable of intimacy
7. Generativity vs. stagnation
a. Middle years
8. Ego integrity vs. despair
a. Late adulthood and old age not fear death
- Cultural and economic factors affect people’s progression though these stages
- Psychological themes and crises of life can occur out of order
- In modern societies, however, most people will face unanticipated transitions
- Many people have to deal with changes they expect to happen but do not
- People’s views of aging are profoundly influenced by the culture they live in and by the promises of technology
to prolong life and health
- Bringing up baby
o Set high expectations that are appropriate to the child’s age and temperament, and teach the child how
to meet them
o Explain
o Encourage empathy
o Notice, approve of, and reward good behaviour
o Don’t oversimplify

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