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Chapter 13

Psychology Chapter 13 Summary.docx

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Trent University
PSYC 1030H
Brenda Smith- Chant

Psychology Chapter 13 Summary Object Permanence: The understanding, which develops throughout the first year, that an object continues to exist even when you cannot see it or touch it Conservation: The understanding that the physical properties of objects, such as the number of items in a cluster or the amount of liquid in a glass, can remain the same even when their form or appearance changes Theory of Mind: A system of beliefs about the way one’s own mind and the minds of others work, and of how individuals are affected by their beliefs and feelings Power Assertion: A method of child rearing in which the parent uses punishment and authority to correct the child’s misbehaviour Induction: A method of child rearing in which the parent appeals to the child’s own abilities, sense of responsibility, and feelings for others in correcting the child’s misbehaviour Gender Identity: The fundamental sense of being male or female; it is independent of whether the person conforms to the social and cultural rules to gender Gender Typing: The process by which children learn the abilities, interests, and behaviours associated with being masculine or feminine in their culture Self-Regulation: The ability to suppress their initial wish to do something in favour of doing something else that is not as much fun Intersexuality: Intersex conditions; conditions in which chromosomal or hormonal anomalies cause a child to be born with ambiguous genitals, or genitals that conflict with the infant’s chromosomes Gender Schema: A cognitive schema (mental network) of knowledge, beliefs, metaphors, and expectations about what it means to be male or female - During a woman’s pregnancy, some harmful influences can cross the placental barrier. These influence include the following: o German measles (rubella) o X-rays or other toxic substances like lead o STDs o Smoking o Alcohol o Other drugs (not prescribed; illegal substances) - Between 6 and 8 months, babies become weary or fearful of strangers - Some babies are securely attached – they cry/protest if the parent leaves the room; they welcome her back and then play happily again. They are clearly more attached to the mother than the stranger - Other babies are insecurely attached – insecurity can take two forms 1. The child may be avoidant – not caring if the mother leaves the room, making little effort to seek contact with her on her return and treating the stranger about the same as the mother 2. The child may be anxious or ambivalent – resisting contact with the mother at reunion but protesting loudly if she leaves - What factors promote insecure attachment? o Abandonment and deprivation in the first year or two of life o Parenting that is abusive, neglectful, or erratic because the parent is irresponsible or depressed o The child’s own genetically influenced temperament o Stressful circumstances in the child’s family Language - Parentese – adult use of baby talk o Helps babies learn the melody and rhythm of their native language The Early Development of Language Guideline Example First few months Babies cry and coo; they respond to emotions and rhythms in voices 4 – 6 months Babies begin to recognize key vowel and consonant sounds of their native language 6 months – 1 year Infants’ familiarity with the sound structure of their native language increases and they can distinguish words from the flow of speech At 7 months they begin to remember words they have heard but they can’t always recognize the same word when it is spoken by different people End of first year Infants start to name things based on familiar concepts and use symbolic gestures to communicate 18 – 24 months Children begin to speak in two- and three-word phrases and understand verbs from the context in which they occur 2 – 6 years Children rapidly acquire new words, inferring their meaning from the grammatical and social contexts in which they hear them - Children whose parents encourage them to use gestures acquire larger vocabularies, have better comprehension, are better listeners, and are less frustrated in their efforts to communicate than children who are not encouraged to use gestures - In the 1920’s, Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget proposed a “flower-blooming” theory of cognitive development - Piaget’s theory of cognitive stages o According to Piaget, as children develop, their minds constantly adapt to new situations and experiences. Sometimes they assimilate new information into their existing mental categories o Children must change their mental categories to accommodate their new exper
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