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Nutrition (77)
NUTR100 (67)
Chapter 4

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Sabina Valentine

Feb 1 Chap 4 – Carbs 1. Describe the difference between simple and complex carbohydrates 2. Discuss how carbohydrates are digested and absorbed by our bodies 3. Describe four functions of carbohydrates in our bodies 4. Identify the potential health risks associated with diets low in carbohydrate and high in fat 5. Define the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range for carbohydrates, the Adequate Intake for fibre, and the recommended intake of added sugars 6. Identify five foods that are good sources of complex carbohydrates 7. Identify at least three alternative sweeteners 8. Describe type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and discuss how diabetes differs from hypoglycemia Carbs • One of the 3 macronutrients • A primary energy source, especially for nerve cells • Composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen • Good source include fruits, veggies, and grains Glucose • The most abundant carb • Used as a building block for other carb molecules • Produced by plants through phosynthesis Photosynthesis • Energy is taken in from the sun • Glucose is stored in plant • CO2 is in the air Simple Carbs • Contain 1 or 2 molecules • Monosaccharides contain only 1 molecule (glucose, fructose, galactose) • Disaccharides contain 2 molecules (lactose, maltose, sucrose) Monosaccharides • Glucose: most abundant sugar in our diet; good energy source • Fructose: sweetest natural sugar; found in fruit; high fructose corn syrup • Galactose: doenst occur alone in foods; binds with glucose to form lactose Disaccharides • Glucose + galactose = lactose and is also called milk sugar • Glucose + glucose = maltose. Maltose molecules join in food to form starch molecules; by-product of fermentation process • Glucose + fructose = sucrose. Sucrose is found in sugar cane, sugar beets, and honey Complex Carbs • Long chains of glucose molecules • Hundreds to thousands of molecules long • Also called polysaccharides • Starch, glycogen, most fibres • Starch: storage form of glucose in plants; food sources include grain, legumes and tubers • Glycogen: storage form of glucose in animals; stored in liver and muscles • Fiber: forms the support structures of leaves, stems, and plants Starch • Plants store carbs such as starch • We digest (break down) starch to glucose • Grains, legumes, and tubers are good sources of starch in our diet • Some starch in plants isn’t digestibl
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