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Chapter 2

Cultural Anthropology Chapter Two

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ANTH 1150
Satsuki Kawano

ANTH 1150Cultural Anthropology Chapter Two Notes Key Terms Culture refers to the learned social acquired traditions of thought and behaviour found in human societies It is a socially acquired lifestyle that includes patterned repetitive ways of thinking feelings and actingEnculturation is a partially conscious and partially unconscious learning experience whereby the older generation invites induces and compels the younger generation to adopt tradition ways of thinking and behavingEthnocentrism is the belief that ones own patterns of behaviour are always natural good beautiful or important and that strangers to the extent that they are living differently live by savage inhuman disgusting or irrational standardsCultural Relativism Stipulates that behaviour in a particular culture should not be judged by the standards of anotherIt is evident that not all human customs or institutions contribute to the societys overall health and wellbeing nor should they be regarded as morally or ethically worthy of respectFalsification entails the rejection of a theory because the prediction is not supported by the dataDiffusion takes place when culture contact leads to borrowing and passing on of culture traitsEmics describe culture from the participants viewpoint the observer uses concepts and distinctions that are meaningful and appropriate to the participantsEtics describe culture from the observers perspective the observer uses concepts and distinctions that are meaningful and appropriate to the observerUniversal Pattern is a set of categories that is comprehensive enough to afford logical and classificatory organization for a range of traits and institutions that can be observed in all cultural systemsCultural Materialism a research strategy that holds that the primary task of cultural anthropology is to give scientific casual explanations for the differences and similarities in thought and behaviour found among human groupsPrincipal of Primary of Infrastructure states that infrastructural variables are more determinative of the evolution of sociocultural systemsDefinitions of Culture Sir Edward Burnett Tylorfounder of academic Anthro in the Englishspeaking world and author of the first general Anthro textbookView of culture is pure ideacompared to the notion of culture as a computer program kind of software that tells people what to do in certain circumstances
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