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Cardiovascular System.pdf

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University of Guelph
BIOL 1080
Jim Kirkland

Page 215-238: Cardiovascular System Functions • Transports nutrients, respiratory gases, wastes and heat. • Transports immunecells and antibodies • Transports hormones • RegulatespH • Blood is carried AWAY from the heart in ARTERIES • Blood is carried TOWARDS the heart in veins Heart-->Arteries-->Arterioles-->Capillaries( Allowsexchange of materialsbetween blood and cells) Capillaries-->Venules-->Veins-->Heart • Lining of blood vesselsis the ENDOTHELIUM. Interior of blood vesselsis the LUMEN. Arteries: • Inner endothelium wall. • Middle elasticfiber and smooth muscle layer. Allowsartery to stretch and adapt to pressure changes to keep a relativelyeven pressure within the artery. Relaxed: Vasodilation Contracted: Vasoconstriction • Outer layeris sheath of connective tissue containing fibers and collagen. Outer layeradds strength to wall and anchors to tissue. • Our pulse is created by this expansion and recoil of arteries. • Aneurysm: Weakenedarterial wall leading to the artery wall swellingoutwards. Biggestriskis that the aneurysm will burst or clot. Capillaries: • Connects arteriolesand venules • Thin wallsto allow substances to move between the blood and fluidoutside capillary. • Plasmamembranein endothelial cells is selectivebarrier • Network of capillariesfor a particular area are the CAPILLARY BED. • PRECAPILLARY SPHINCTERS: Valves that open and close capillarybeds • Blood flows slowerthrough capillariesbecause of the small size, but largecross sectional area Veins: • Wallsare thinner then arteries with lumenlargerto allow veinsto hold a large volumeof blood. • Valvesin veins prevent backflow of blood to allowblood from lower parts of the body to make it back up to heart. • Skeletal muscle contractions squeezesveins to push it up towards heart. • Breathing changes pressure. Chest cavity increase in inhalation reduces pressures in thoracic cavity causing blood to move towards the area of lowerpressure (towards heart). Heart: • MYOCARDIUM is the wall of the heart • ENDOCARDIUM is the thin lining in heart cavities • PERICARDIUM is thick sac that holds the heart in the center of the thoracic cavity • RIGHT SIDE-->Lungs to be oxygenated. Through the pulmonary circuit. Right atrium-->AVvalve-->Rightve
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