Chapter 15: respondent and operant conditioning together
any given experience is likely to include both respondent and operant conditioning
stimuli associated with the deadline likely caused Rick to feel anxious, a respondent
response, and responding to meet the deadline, operant responses, were maintained by the
negative reinforcement of the decrease in Rick's anxiety.
Both operant and respondent conditioning also occur in behavioral sequences involving
RESPONDENT AND OPERANT COMPONENTS OF EMOTIONS
The role of respondent and operant conditioning in four areas of emotion:
(a) the reaction that one feels during the experience of an emotion
(b) the way that one learns to outwardly express or disguise an emo- tion
(c) how one becomes aware of and describes one's emotions
(d) some causes of emotions.
Respondent component: Our feelings
Autonomic nervous system: digestive system, the circulatory system, and the respiratory
system reflexes are controlled by the part of our nervous system
not involved in all respondent behaviors
Cross-cultural evidence suggests that these reflexive reactions may be universal
We learn to describe these physiological components of our emotions as feelings
Some causes of emotions:
Presentation and withdrawal of reinforcers and presentation and withdrawal of aversive
stimuli produce at least four major emotions.
Presentation of reinforcers = joy.
Withholding or withdrawing reinforcers = anger.
The presentation of aversive stimuli = anxiety.
Withdrawal of aversive stimuli = relief.
Other emotions might represent a mixture of s