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Chapter 5

FRHD 2270 Chapter 5: Chapter 5

Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 2270
Robyn Pitman

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Chapter 5
Perceptual and Motor Development
Attention: is the process by which we select information that will be processed further
When presented with a strong or unfamiliar stimulus, an orienting response usually occurs
Orienting response: a person startles, fixes the eyes on the stimulus, and shows changes in heart rate
and brain wave patterns
After repeated presentation of stimulus, people become accustom to it and their orientainf
response diminishes and eventually disappears-a sign of habituation
o Habituation indicates that attention is selective
During the preschool years, children gradually become able to regulate their attention
o The way children examine and play with toys
o Stay focused longer on tv
An equally important part of paying attention is inhibiting unwanted or interfering thoughts and
o Such skills are not very strong in preschool
We can help young children maintain attention by making relevant information more salient
than irrelevant information
o Remove distracting stiuli’s
o Periodically reminding them to pay attention
Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder
3-5% of children are diagnosed with ADHD, with boys outweighing girls 3-1
Inattention: skip from one task to another, do not pay attention in class and seem unable to concentrate
on homework
Hyperactivity: unusually energetic, fidgety and unable to keep still
Impulsivity: children with ADHD often act before thinking; they may run into a street before looking for
traffic, or interrupt others who are speaking
Most children with ADHD are hyperactive with impulsive or inattention.
Children often have problems with conduct, academic performance, and getting along with their
Prenatal exposure to alcohol and drugs may put kids at risk for ADHD
Children often respond well to stimulant medication-which stimulates the part of the brain that
normally inhibits hyperactive and impulsive behavior-thus giving a calming effect and allowing
them to focus their attention
Pshosoial progras desiged to iproe hildre’s ogitie and social skills also work
Motor Development
Motor skills: coordinated movements of muscles and limbs
Locomotion: the ability to move around in the world
Toddlers because they toddle when they first learn to walk
By 24 months, most children can climb steps, walk backwards, and kick a ball
Fine motor skills: motor skills associated with grasping, holding and manipulating objects
Dynamic systems theory: a theory that views development as involving many distinct skills that are
organized and reorganized over time to meet the demands of specific tasks
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