Textbook Notes (368,095)
Canada (161,638)
History (208)
HIST 1010 (54)
Chapter 14

HIST 1010 Ch. 14 Textbook Summary (F11)

5 Pages
106 Views
Unlock Document

Department
History
Course
HIST 1010
Professor
Peter Goddard
Semester
Fall

Description
1 HIST 1010 Chapter 14 Summary: New Directions in Thought and Culture in the 16 and th 17 Centuries o Natural philosophy at the time, challenged modes of thought associated with late medieval times o With new knowledge and science cam new wave of superstition and persecution Scientific Revolution o Process that established new view of universe o Scientific concepts and methods set standard for assessing validity of knowledge in Western world Nicolaus Copernicus Rejects Earth-Centered Universe o Polish priest and astronomer o On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres challenged Ptolemaic picture o Ptolemaic systems: Basis of which they made mathematical calculations relating to astronomy; most of these writers assumed the earth was the center of the universe (geocentrism) o Adopted many elements of the Ptolemaic model, but transferred them to a heliocentric (sun-centered) model, assumed earth moved about the sun circularly o Argued that the farther the planets were from the sun, the longer they took to revolve around it; made easier to determine the order of the planets Tycho Brache and Johannes Kepler o Tycho Brache (1546-1601): Danish astronomer; spent most of life advocating earth-centered system; suggested that Mercury and Venus revolved around sun, but moon, sun, etc. revolved around earth o Johannes Kepler (1571-1630): German astronomer; set forth first astronomical model that actually portrays motion (path of planets) as elliptical, not circular; The New Astronomy (1609) – used Copernicus’s sun- centered universe and Brahe’s empirical data to solve the problem of planetary motion Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) o Italian mathematician and natural philosopher o Telescope o Starry Messenger (1610), Letters on Sunspots (1613) o Observed physical evidence, phases of Venus o Problems with RCC arose from his ideas and his flair for self-advertisement o Argued nature displayed mathematical regularity in its most minute details Isaac Newton (1642-1727) o Englishman o Established basis for physics and endured for more than two centuries o Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy AKA Principia Mathematica (1698) o Reasoned that planets and all other physical objects in universe moved through mutual attraction (gravity) 2 o Attraction of gravity explained why planets moved in an orderly manner o Believed in empiricism – one must observe phenomena before attempting to explain them o Great opponent of the rationalism of French philosopher Rene Descartes Philosophy Responds to Changing Science o Bacon stressed importance of empirical research o Descartes attempted to find certainty through exploration of his own thinking processes Francis Bacon (1561-1626): Empirical Method o Englishman; lawyer; high royal official; author of histories, moral essays, and philosophical discourses o Graded as father of empiricism and of experimentation in science o The Advancement of Learning (1605), Novum Organum (1620), The New Atlantis (1627) – attacked the scholastic belief that most truth had already been discovered and only required explanation o Believed that human knowledge should produce useful results – deeds rather than words o Compared himself with Columbus, plotting new route to intellectual discovery o Believed the pursuit of new knowledge would increase the power of governments and monarchies Rene Descartes (1596-1650): Method of Rational Deduction o Gifted mathematician; invented analytic geometry o Scientific method relied more on deduction o Discourse on Method (1637) o Doubt everything except those propositions about which he could have clear and distinct ideas; proceeded to deduce existence of God o Separated mind from body to banish nonmaterial matters from realm of scientific speculation and analysis o Emphasis on deduction, rational speculation, and internal reflection by the mind – Meditations (1641) Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679): Apologist for Absolute Government o Most original political philosopher of 17 century o Leviathan (1651) – aim was to provide rigorous philosophical justification for a strong central political authority o Portrayed human beings and society in thoroughly materialistic and mechanical ways o Human reasoning penetrated to no deeper reality/wisdom than those physical sensations o Rejected view that human beings are naturally sociable; they are self- centered creatures who lack masters o Human beings in this sate of nature were constantly haunted by fear of destruction and death o “Do not that to another which you would not have done to yourself” o Argument for an absolute political authority that could assure order aroused sharp opposition 3 John Locke (1632-1704): Defender of Moderate Liberty and Toleration o Most influential philosophical and political thinker of 17 century o Literal political philosopher in Europe and America o Became deeply involved with the tumultuous politics of English Restoration period o Portrayed the natural human state as one of perfect freedom and equality in which everyone enjoyed, in an unregulated fashion, the natural rights of life, liberty, and property o Regarded human beings in their natural state as creatures of reason and basic goodwill rather than of uncontrolled passion and selfishness o Letter Concerning Toleration (1689) – defend extensive religious toleration among Christian
More Less

Related notes for HIST 1010

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit