Chapter 7- Consumer Learning.docx

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University of Guelph
Marketing and Consumer Studies
MCS 2600
Nicole Mc Callum

Chapter 7- Consumer Learning The elements of consumer learning - learning is defined as the proess by which individuals acquire the purchase and consumption knowledge and experience that they apply to future related behavior - is a process- continually evolving and changes as a result of newly acquired knowledge or experience - learning can be intentional or incidental - consumer learning encompasses the total rage of learning, from simple reflective responses to learning abstract concepts and complex problem solving - basic elements for learning to occur- o motivation  the degree of relevance or involvement determines the consumer’s level of motivation to search for knowledge or info about product or service o cues  are the stimuli tht direct motives  serve to direct consumer drives where they are consistent with consumer expectations o response  how individuals react to a drive or cue- how they behave o reinforcement  increases the liklhood that a specific response will occur in the future as the result of particular cues or stimuli  if a consumer is rewarded , by enjoying a product or service purchased, that consumer has learned to associate the purchase with a pleasant feeling and therefore is likely to repeat the learned behavior and become a loyal customer Behavioral Learning - sometimes referred to as stimulus-response learning - based on premise that observable responses to specific external stimula signal learning has occurred - not so much concerned with process as it is with the inputs anc outcoems of leaning - classical conditioning o response to a stimulus built through repeated exposure o Pavlonian theory, conditioniong learning resukts when stimulis that is paired with another stimulus that elicits a known response serves to produce the same response when used alone - Cognitive Associative Learning o Classical conditioning is seen as cosnitive associative learning- the aquisiton to new knowledge about the world o Under neo-pavlonian theory, consumer can be viewed as an information seeker who uses logical and perceptual relations among events, along w his or her own preconceptions, to form a sophisticated represtation of a world - Strategic applications of classical conditioning o Repetition  Individual can become satiated with numerous exposures, and both attention and retention will decline  Known as advertising wareout  Substantive variations are changes in advertising content across different versions of an advertisement and are appropriate when the marketer wishes to convey more than one prodiuct feature  Some advertisers believe 3 exposures to an ad are required- 1 for aware of the product, 2 to show consumers relevance of product, 3 to remind them of its benefits o Stimulus generalization  Making the same response to slightly different stimuli  Product line, form, and category extensions  Product line extensions marketer adds related products to an already established brank, knowing that good by association= trusted brand name  Product form extensions- rarget new market segments o Number of different products affiliated with a brand strengthens the brand name, as long as quality is maintained thru all extensions  Family branding- the practice of marketing a whole line of copany products under same brand name- uses consumes ability to generalize favorable brnad assoiations  Licensing- allowing a well-known brand name to be affixed to products of another manufacturer o Stimulus discrimination  Results in the selection of a specific stimulus from among similar stimuli  Product differentiation  Most are designed to distinguist a product or brand from that of competitors on the basis of an attribute that is relevant, meaningful & valueable to company - Instrumental Conditioning o Believe that learning occurs thru trial& error process, with habits formed as a result of rewards received for certain responses or behaviors o According to Skinner, most individuals learning occurs in a controlled environment in which individuals are “rewarded” for choosing an appropriate behavior o Reinforcement of behavior  Positive reinforcement- events that strengthen the likelihood of a specific response  Negative reinforcement- an unpleasant or negative outcome that also serves to encourage a specific behavior  Fear appeals  Reinforcements can be used to illicit the desired response o Extinction
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