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Nutrition (113)
NUTR 2050 (75)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5.docx

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University of Guelph
NUTR 2050
Simone Holligan

Chapter 5 Obesity and Pregnancy excess body fat alters many metabolic processes and influences the development of two of theof the clinical conditions presented in this chapterobesity prior to pregnancy is associated with higher rates of gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy unfavourable metabolic changes initiated by excessive body fatincreased blood glucose levels high Creactive protein levels a key marker of inflamationincreased blood concentration of insulininsulin resistance increased blood pressure high blood levels of total cholesterol LDL cholesterol and triglycerides low levels of HDLcholesterol70 of obese persons and 23 of normal weight persons have 2 or more of these which increase disease risk visceral fat lies beneath skin and muscles of the abdomen much more strongly related to disease risk subcutaneous fat lies beneath the skin metabolic processes initiated by visceral fatproduce chronic inflammation freeradical generation and oxidative stress these promote insulin resistance elevated blood glucose insulin and tryglyceride concentrations and increased blood pressure these increase the risk of gestational diabetes hypertensive disorders and other clinical conditions during pregnancyincreased prevalence of gestational diabetes and hypertension during pregnancy due to higher rates of obesity 284 of woman 2034 in the US are obese compared to 10 in 1980moms obesity and infant outcomes stillbirths large for gestational newborns and c section delivery higher in obese womenthese kids have high risk of becoming overweight during childhood and developing type 2 diabetes later in life related to increased to fetal exposure to high levels of insulin and a propensity towards developing insulin resistanceNutritional recommendations and interventions for obesity during pregnancy women loose weight rapidly after bariatric surgerydue to limited food intake fat malabsorption and presence of dumping syndrome a condition characterized by weakness dizziness flushing nausea and palpitation immediately following eating and produced by abnormally rapid emptying of the stomachespecially in individuals who have had part of the
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