NUTR 2050 Chapter Notes - Chapter 15: Bioavailability, Malabsorption, Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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10 Apr 2012
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Chapter 15 Summary (391-392, 395-403)
Nutrition for Adolescent Athletes
oMore than 50% of adolescents report playing on 1+ sports teams
Higher among males (reduced with age)
White and black more than hispanic
Fluids and Hydration
oSpecially important in prepubertal adolescent athletes since body doesn’t regulate body
temp as well
oToo mentally focused on sport to pick up on body signals of fluid loss (sweating and
thirst)
oAmbient temperature, humidity level, weight of equipment also play role
oShould regularly consume fluids even if not thirsty
o6-8 oz. prior to exercise, 4-6 oz. every 15-20 minutes during, and at least 8 oz after
oEach pound lost during exercise needs 16 oz. of fluid to re-hydrate after
oShould not drink more than 16 oz/30 minutes
oSports drinks or juices diluted with water at a 1:2 ratio are more beneficial than water
Better hydration and physical performance
No more than 6-8% carbohydrates
If not diluted can cause gastric discomfort or delay gastric emptying
oToo much caffeine can promote diuresis increasing risk of dehydration
Special Dietary Practices
oWhen athletes consume nutritional or non-nutritional supplements in an effort to
improve physical performance and increase lean body mass
oCarbohydrate loading regimens
Improve the glycogen content and formation in muscle
Manipulation of training intensity and duration along with amount of
carbohydrates in meals
Week long process before competition
- Days 1-3: high exercise, low carb
- Day 4-7: low exercise (rest) but high carb (now stored)
Usually modify to less intense method
Common in endurance athletes
oHigh protein diets
3-4x the recommended amount with low intake of carbs
Discouraged for before performance
- High protein foods usually also high in total and saturated fats
- Low carb intake delays digestion and absorption reducing energy
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- More water needed to break down protein therefore more prone to
dehydration
Better for recovering than preparing for event
Substance Abuse
oTobacco, alcohol, and recreational drugs affect nutritional status in adolescents
o20% adolescents smoke cigarettes
12% one per day, 11% more than 10 per day
Males and females similar
White smoke most
Males more likely to use non-smoke tobacco (chew)
Smokers needs more vitamin C
oAlcohol intake increases with age
83% tried by grade 12
45% current alcohol use
26% reported binge drinking (5+ drinks during one occasion in past month)
More common among white
Compromises nutritional status from replacing healthy food and drinks
Drinkers need more thiamin and other B-vitamins
oIllicit drugs
20% current marijuana use, 3% cocaine use, 13% used inhalants, 8% hallucinogens,
2% heroin, 6% ecstasy, 4% methamphetamines
Higher among males than females
Most common among Hispanic (blacks most common for marijuana though)
oDisordered eating more frequent among those who partake in substance abuse
oSubstances may deplete stores of vitamins and minerals in body
Thiamin, vit C, and iron
oCan reduce appetite reducing intake of necessary nutrients
Dieting, Disordered Eating, and Eating Disorders
Table 15.4 Potential effects of substance use on nutritional status
- Appetite suppression
- Reduced nutritional intake
- Decreased nutrient bioavailability
- Increased nutrient losses/malabsorption
- Altered nutrient synthesis, activation, and utilization
- Impaired nutrient metabolism
- Increased nutrient destruction
- Higher Metabolic requirements of nutrients
- Inadequate weight gain/weight loss
- Iron deficiency anemia
- Decreased financial resources for food
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