Textbook Notes (369,072)
Canada (162,367)
POLS 1500 (40)
Chapter

POLS1500 Notes for Grass1.docx

20 Pages
56 Views

Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLS 1500
Professor
Francesco Leri

This preview shows pages 1,2,3,4. Sign up to view the full 20 pages of the document.
Description
POLS 1400 Prof. Nanita Mohan Chantelle Ramsundar [email protected] Issues in Canadian Politics Terminology  • Politics o “Who gets what, when and how” – Harold Laswell • Government o Set of institutions that make and enforce collective, public decisions- also the current group in power • Ideology o Body of ideas used in support of economic, political or social theory • Public Administration o The way in which governments conduct themselves through bureaucratic processes; a discipline and practice • Bureaucracy o A form of organization • Politicians o Elected officials Vs. • Bureaucrats o Appointed officials Political Spectrum • Democracy – Rule by the people • Direct Democracy – In which people have a direct say in matters of the state • Representative Democracy – In which people appoint representatives to speak for them in matters of the state Questions ▯ Do we have too much equality? How does democracy apply to the people who oppose same-sex marriage when it only technically benefits one part of society? Why does it matter? How would it affect them? Elements of Democracy • There is a DEMOS o You must have citizens within a state • There is a territory where decisions apply o Nation State o Physical territory with a physical barrier • There is a decision making procedure • Procedure is regarded as legitimate by the demos • Freedom- Constrained versus Infinite Freedom POLS 1400 Prof. Nanita Mohan Chantelle Ramsundar [email protected] Liberalism in Canada • Liberalism is held to stand for a political view that verges towards the universal and abstract (embraces change in society). o Individualism / Liberalism = almost synonymous o In the context of Canadian politics  100 years ago: Liberalism focused mainly on individual rights – social welfare, education, etc.  Today: Embraces group recognition  Liberal government policies: Main focus on group/collective rights • Welfare state but taxes are high • Primary objective of economic activity is to improve human welfare (top-bottom approach) o To establish polities to collectively improve human welfare  Childcare: 2004-2006: Ensuring a universal childcare system; taxes will support a childcare system  Aiding a collective group o Top to Bottom Approach  Welfare of the people has to come directly from the top (State through taxation)  Norm of the liberal-political party  In the last 4 elections  Change to minimal-state involvement • Transition in philosophy = Recent demise of the party • Still the dominant IDEOLOGY, NOT the dominant PARTY. • Dominant ideology of Canada • Group Rights Conservatism  • Characterized by a belief in individualism and minimum of government intervention in the economy and society as well as tradition, elitism, and opposition to change • Individual freedom is more important than social equality o Where there is a division between conservatives/NDP o Individual success and well-being • Government should be small and level of taxation low o Harper w/26 cabinet ministers o Merging departments o “Minimum government intervention” o Have minimal amount of perspective changes  Harper’s success: Having a concise plan for a few issues. “What I can do with what I have”. • Federal government – avenue of last resort for assistance (bottom-up approach)  Childcare: Promised that every mother who had a child below the age of 6 - $100.00 per month  Money is taxable; $80.00 per month o Federal Accountability Act  Changed the way parties campaigned in elections, ensuring that richer people didn’t pay into political parties  Created in the wake of the Sponsorship Scandal POLS 1400 Prof. Nanita Mohan Chantelle Ramsundar [email protected] Childcare Liberals: Put the tax money into a welfare program to help families Conservatives: Give the money back to the individual Socialism  • Socialism seeks to liberate the individual from the inequalities and exploitation of the capitalist system • It believes in a large element of state action in order to achieve equality • Equal Distribution of Wealth • NDP o Supports a form of “Social Democracy”  Stems from the ideology of a centrist approach to socialism  The party will work with the existing government to alter/change/remove barriers of economy in an already working system Ideological History in Canada - Minimalist: 1860 to 1930 - Keynesian: 1930 to 1980 o Great depression o More government dependence on welfare - Neo-Conservative: 1980 to Present o Out of the depression and entered an era of economic flourish o Minimal role of state; difference in o Increase in privatization o Increase in downsizing o Increase in deregulation/decentralization Political Culture 1. Louis Hartz a. Canada’s political culture stems from a fragmented society b. Stems from different ancestry c. There is no such thing as a “True Canadian Culture” d. Not to be confused with the melting-pot theory 2. Martin Lipset a. Author The Continental Divide b. Separation of French and English – Separation of Canadian and American culture 3. Harold Innis a. Staples Theory b. When talking about Canadian culture, it is seen from a resource POV c. Fishing, mining, forestry Legislature  - Multi-member representative body which considers public issues o In Canada, the legislature consists of  HOC - 308 POLS 1400 Prof. Nanita Mohan Chantelle Ramsundar [email protected]  Senate - 105 o Considered to be medium in size o Smallest legislature – Benwatu; 12 members o Biggest – China; 3,000 members - Functions o Representation  Each member represents a riding  Every riding has a member of parliament represented in the HOC  Senate – Not elected; appointed by regions • Represents a population o Legislation  Passing bills; must go through the HOC and senate  Bill becomes ‘locked’ o Authorizing expenditure  Approve a budget for the fiscal year  Any new projects must be authorized by the legislature o Making governments o Deliberations  Anything to do with bills, expenditure, passing bills etc.  Happens during question period/regular sittings Legislature – Parliamentary Government - Bicameral – Two Houses o HOC and Senate - 3 Parts – Executive, back bench, opposition, party whips o Executive  PM, Governor General, Cabinet POLS 1400 Prof. Nanita Mohan Chantelle Ramsundar [email protected]  The ‘highest’ in the chain of command - Composition – 308 members - Representative Government - Session – 135 days o Only days that they work - Speech from Throne, Budget Speech, 21 Opposition Days - The PM in Canada is one of the most powerful leaders in the democratic world; a lot of hiring/firing power - Able to pass bills without going to the legislature Canadian House of Commons - 308 Members (Ridings) o Majority = 308/2 + 1 o <154 = Minority o Ridings have increased in years  Representation goes by population, therefore each member represents 90,000 to 100,000 members o Some claim that a population is overrepresented at times - Known as “members of parliament” - Each MP is elected using the “first past the post” system o Every federal election, representative is voted on, the name with the most amount of votes wins for the riding  CONS – The difference between the MP that won and the candidate that lost can be 1 vote; criticized because it does not take into consideration the votes that did not win • Proportional Representation System – A percentage is taken Canadian Senate - 105 Members; Appointed by the PM o Work until they retire o More conservative representation than any other party - “Equal Regional Representation” – Reflected in the population o Ontario, Quebec, Maritimes, West = 24 o PEI = 4 o Quebec (Divided into 24 senatorial regions) = 24 o Newfoundland = 3 o Territories = 1 each - Requirements o At least 30 years of age o Must reside in the region they are representing o Own at least $4,000.00 worth of property in the area (some kind of asset) - Senate Reform – Tripe E Senate? POLS 1400 Prof. Nanita Mohan Chantelle Ramsundar [email protected] o Elected o Effective/Efficient o Equal  For the last 20 years, there has been a debate going on how the senate is elected  Instead of the PM and GG, they will be elected by the public alike MP’s Responsible Government - Responsible Government – A form of government in which the executive must maintain the confidence of the legislature or resign o Why having a minority government works against the principle of responsible government - Individual Ministerial Responsibility - Majority and Minority Government - Harper’s government o Found in contempt in parliament  One of the ministers (Cabinet minister) did something that found her in contempt, because she outwardly lied about something Majority vs. Minority Governments - Majority Government – One based on a majority of the governing party’s in MP’s in the house - Minority Government – Government that emerges from an election that accords it less than a majority of Members of the house of Commons o You need to have the support of everyone in your party + the support of other parties to get bills passed 5 Agendas - Urgent Business th o I.e. September 11 , Anti-Terrorist Bills o 5-10 days - Routine Business o Talking about new appointments, nominations, budget, etc. o National Anthem/Lord’s Prayer - Government Days o When the government introduces/suggests an agenda o If they want to pass a bill/pursue a law/issue - Opposition Days o 20 Days o When the official opposition has the opportunity to bring up issues that they want to address/bills they want to pass - Private Member Days o When there is an independent minister of parliament, when a member wants to discuss an urgent issue Question Period - Happens every day - 45 Minutes; leader of opposition gets to ask two questions - Factual POLS 1400 Prof. Nanita Mohan Chantelle Ramsundar [email protected] - Media can come in an observe - “Late Show” o Prolonging the argument later on in the night - Where the ruling party/government ensures that they utilize the media, so they can infer that there is accountability going on Constitutional Convention - There are certain things that the GG can do as a ‘constitutional convention’ - Although the GG usually adheres to what the PM says, they still have the ability to say no o Shows how powerful the PM can be in Canada o I.e. The ability to dissolve government Individual Ministerial Responsibility  - Makes executive the focal point of accountability - Minister answers for the bureaucracy in the legislature: o Provides link between bureaucracy and legislature Advantages of Minority Government - Responsiveness o They have to be responsive and on-the-spot o Must answer every question in a diplomatic way o Everyone has a different agenda - Accountability - Transparency Disadvantages of Minority Government - Unstable Government o Very short; do not last as long as majority governments - Bills are difficult to propose - Inconsistency o Have to strike deals with other parties - Inefficiency o Constantly negotiating Different Types of Bills - Public and Private Bills - Private Bills o Very rare – more common 50 years ago o Made by organizations, religious institutions o Gives private members special powers to introduce a bill to the HOC o NOT made by any of the public government o Private enterprises and institutions, banks o 60’s – Quebec used this type of bill  Getting a divorce meant getting a private bill - Public Bills o Government Bills  Most Common POLS 1400 Prof. Nanita Mohan Chantelle Ramsundar [email protected]  The Government in question proposes a bill and would eventually become law • Financial o Also called “Money Bills” o Must begin in the HOC o You cannot start this process in the senate • Non-Financial o Private Member Bills  When an independent member of parliament who is not a member of a party tries to propose a bill  Proposed either privately or a member of parliament who wishes to present a bill for their own riding • Done on a smaller scale Executive Power - The Crown o The Collectivity of executive powers exercised by or in the name of the monarch - Powers o Head of State, Head of Corporations, Court References, Governor General is Represented, Names PM, Dissolves Parliament, Gives Royal Assent  Party Discipline • Ensuring everyone in your party is ‘on board’ with policies The Executive Heads of Government and Head of State - Head of State o Queen or… o Queen’s Representative, Governor General - Head of Government o Prime Minister and Cabinet Executive Power - The Prime Minister o Powers  Cabinet Maker  Chair of Cabinet Meetings  Party Leader  Chief Policy Maker  Leading Player of HOC  Chief Personnel Manager • Enough women, proportional representation, ethnic diversity • Scrutiny to when it comes to the qualifications of ministers The Prime Minister and the Cabinet - Choosing a cabinet o Who Qualifies? o A Balancing Act  Provinces and Regions  Factions POLS 1400 Prof. Nanita Mohan Chantelle Ramsundar [email protected]  Language  Religion  Ethnicity  Gender Governor General’s Role - Crown and the Monarch - Function o Ceremonial Functions  Conferring the Order of Canada Awards, Receiving troops  Symbol of State  Advising the Prime Minister Law and the Courts - Law o A rule of conduct or procedure established by custom, agreement, or authority - Rule of Law o The principle that both the rules and the rulers are answerable to the law - Constitutional Law o Deals with the rules, practices and institutions which constitute the state - Common Law o The rules developed by the courts and based on the principle of stare decisions - Civil Law o The law of Ancient Rome, especially that which applies to private citizens o Judgments are based on codified principles rather than precedents - Courts in Canada o Federal  Taxation, Patents o Provincial  Provincial Superior Court  Family Court, Juvenile Court o Supreme  Highest  All decisions are final  Don’t take in every single case presented  9 Justices; 3 must come from Quebec • Quebec practices Civil Law Charter of Rights and Freedoms - Section 2: Fundamental Freedoms - Section 3-5: Democratic and Mobility Rights - Section 7-14: Legal Rights - Section 15: Equality Rights - Section 16-22: Language Rights - Section 24: Judicial Review o The power of the court to determine if the action of the other branches are constitutional or not POLS 1400 Prof. Nanita Mohan Chantelle Ramsundar [email protected]  Without this section, the supreme court could not play more of a public rule - Section 25-30: Identifiable Groups - Section 33: Notwithstanding Cause Characteristics of Electoral Systems 1. How are these votes counted? 2. What political office are you voting for? a. Federal/Provincial/Municipal? First Past the Post Disproportionality  3 different ridings 1. Guelph – 100 residents a. Party A – 51 b. Party B – 47 c. Party C - 2 2. Kitchener – 100 residents a. Party A – 40 b. Party B – 51 c. Party C – 9 3. Waterloo – 100 residents a. Party A - 50 b. Party B - 47 c. Party C - 3 PARTYA = 2 PARTY B = 1 PARTY C = 0 However; Party A = 141 Party B = 145 Party C = 14 ^ Disproportionality The Bureaucracy and Political Corruption Political Ethics – The study of morality’s effect on conduct in the political arena Ethical Values in Politics - Integrity - Honesty - Probity - Prudence - Impartiality - Equity POLS 1400 Prof. Nanita Mohan Chantelle Ramsundar [email protected] - Selflessness Code of Ethics – All must abide Public Trust - Builds Public Trust - Makes public servants ensure their behavior is acceptable - Penalties are harsh- ensuring the right behavior Parliament controlled organization Problems - Very broad o Difficult to apply to specific situations  If there was a situation to arise, HRM’s would have to consult ethical codes and try to apply it to something very specific - The large-scale and complexity of government makes it hard to create these documents anyway - The codes can affect the rights and privacy of workers o All public servants salaries are published o Anyone who makes more than $100,000, their names are published o Facebook: Public servants are told to delete their accounts, or randomly monitored  Hiring a firing happens because of what’s on their FB page Part of the Federal Accountability Act  Made because of the Sponsorship Scandal  No accountability/transparency 3 Main Conflict of Interest Situations 1. The acceptance of gifts of significant value a. It can border on bribery; 2. Moonlighting – Having outside employment other than one’s own public job a. As a public servant, the government expects that you dedicate all your time to yo
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2,3,4 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit