PSYC*1010 – Chapter #3
Visual Displays of Data
Need to Know:
- How to construct a histogram.
- How to identify independent & dependent variables.
- Visual Displays present the “story” of the data quick and easily.
o Convey complex information without lengthy descriptions.
o Reveals relationships among variables.
Misleading With Data
1. The False Face Validity Lie
- Method seems to represent what it says, but may not actually.
2. The Biased Scale Lie
- Scaling to skew the results.
3. The Sneaky Sample Lie
- When participants are preselected to provide the desired data.
4. The Extrapolation Lie
- Assumes knowledge outside of the study.
5. The Inaccurate Values Lie
- Using scaling to distort portions of the data.
6. The Outright Lie
- Making up data.
Common Types of Graphs In Psychology
- Show relationship between two scale variables.
o If non-co relational methods, IV = x-axis & DV = y-axis
- Helps us to determine if two variables have:
o Linear relationship.
o Non-linear relationship.
- Line of best fit on scatter plot.
o Y = a + b(x)
- Times series plot.
- Both variables are scale.
Bar Graphs and Pareto Charts
- IV = nominal or ordinal (x-axis)
- DV = scale (interval or ratio); (y-axis). Pie Charts
- Best for comparing a few categories only.
- Nominal data in %’s or