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Chapter 3

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PSYC 1010
Mark Mc Cullagh

PSYC*1010 – Chapter #3 Visual Displays of Data Need to Know: - How to construct a histogram. - How to identify independent & dependent variables. - Visual Displays present the “story” of the data quick and easily. o Convey complex information without lengthy descriptions. o Reveals relationships among variables. Misleading With Data 1. The False Face Validity Lie - Method seems to represent what it says, but may not actually. 2. The Biased Scale Lie - Scaling to skew the results. 3. The Sneaky Sample Lie - When participants are preselected to provide the desired data. 4. The Extrapolation Lie - Assumes knowledge outside of the study. 5. The Inaccurate Values Lie - Using scaling to distort portions of the data. 6. The Outright Lie - Making up data. Common Types of Graphs In Psychology Scatter plots - Show relationship between two scale variables. o If non-co relational methods, IV = x-axis & DV = y-axis - Helps us to determine if two variables have: o Linear relationship. o Non-linear relationship. Line Graphs - Line of best fit on scatter plot. o Y = a + b(x) - Times series plot. - Both variables are scale. Bar Graphs and Pareto Charts - IV = nominal or ordinal (x-axis) - DV = scale (interval or ratio); (y-axis). Pie Charts - Best for comparing a few categories only. - Nominal data in %’s or
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