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Chapter 3

# Chapter 3 Readings

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University of Guelph

Psychology

PSYC 1010

Anne Bergen

Fall

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PSYCH 1010 – Chpt. 3 Readings
Visual Displays of Data
Misleading with Graphs
1. False face validity lie.
a. Does the method used to collect the data actually represent what is says it represents
2. Biased scale lie.
a. Scale the slants information in a particular way
i. Poor, fair, good, very good, excellent scales have 3 positive & 2 negative
responses
3. Sneaky sample lie.
a. People in the study are preselected so the data will give certain results
4. Extrapolation lies.
a. Assume knowledge of information outside the study
5. Inaccurate values lie.
a. Telling the truth data wise but visually distorting the data in presentation
6. Outright lie.
a. Making up data to make weak results seem stronger
Common Types of Graphs
Scatterplot: depicts the relation between two scale variables
- Steps to create a scatterplot:
o 1. Organize the data by participant
o 2. Label the horizontal x-axis with the IV and possible values
o 3. Label the vertical y-axis with the DV and possible values
o 4. Make a mark on the graph above each study participants score on the x-axis and y-
axis
Linear Relation: between variables means that the relation is best described by a straight line
Nonlinear Relation: relation between variables is best described by a line that breaks or curves in some
way
Line Graph: illustrates the relation between two scale variables. Representing either the change in a
variable over time or predicting the scores
- Steps for creating a scatterplot with a line of best fit:
o 1. Label the x-axis with the name of the IV and its values
o 2. Label the y-axis with the name of the DV and its values
o 3. Make a mark for each participant’s score
o 4. Draw a line of best fit through the plots Time Plot or Time Series Plot: graph that plots a scale variable on the y-axis as it changes over an
increment of time
- Steps to making a time plot:
o 1. Label the x-axis with the name of the IV and its values (increment of time)
o 2. Label the y-axis with the name of the DV and its values
o 3. Make a mark above each v

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