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Chapter 17

PSYC 2310 Chapter Notes - Chapter 17: Deinstitutionalisation, Cognitive Therapy, Systematic Desensitization

Course Code
PSYC 2310
Anneke Olthof

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Chapter 17 Psych 1200
The Helping Relationship
Basic goal of all treatment approaches is to help people change maladaptive,
self-defeating thoughts, feelings and behaviour patterns so that they can live
happier and more productive lives
The relationship between the client and the person providing help is a prime
ingredient of therapeutic success
Psychodynamic Therapies
Psychodynamic approach focuses on internal conflict and unconscious
factors that underlie maladaptive behaviour
Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis refers not only to Freud’s theory of
personality, but also the specific approach to treatment that he developed
The goal of psychoanalysis is to help the client achieve insight
Insight: in Gestalt psychology, the sudden perception of a useful relationship or a
solution to a problem; in psychoanalysis, the conscious awareness of unconscious
dynamics that underlie psychological problems
Believe that as the client repeatedly encounters and deals with buried
emotions, motives, and conflicts both within and outside therapy, the psychic
energy that was previously keeping the unconscious conflict under control
can be released and redirected to more adaptive ways of living
Free Association: in psychoanalysis, the procedure of verbalizing all thoughts that
enter consciousness without censorship
Clients report verbally without censorship any thoughts, feelings, or images
that entered awareness
This provides clues
Dream Interpretations
Dreams express impulses, fantasies, and wishes that the client’s defenses
keep in the unconscious
“The royal road to unconscious”
Resistance: largely unconscious maneuvers that protect clients from dealing with
anxiety-arousing material in therapy
free-associating of “forget about” a therapy appointment, or may avoid
talking about certain topics
Resistance is a sign that anxiety-arousing sensitive material is being

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Transference: the psychoanalytic phenomenon in which a client responds
irrationally to the analyst as if the latter were an important person from the client’s
past who plays an important role in the client’s dynamics
Positive transference affection, dependency, or love
Negative Transference anger, hatred, or disappointment
Interpretation: in psychoanalysis, a statement made by the analysts that is
intended to promote insight in the client
Confronts client with something that they have not previously admitted into
Brief Psychodynamic Therapies
One early study showed that about half the clients improved markedly within
eight sessions, and most therapeutic effects as rated by researchers occurred
within 26 sessions
Regardless of how many sessions the clients attended, the rate of
improvement was highest as the beginning and decreased over time
Interpersonal Therapy: a form of brief therapy that focuses on the client’s
interpersonal problems and seeks to develop new interpersonal skills
Focuses on the client’s current interpersonal problems
Dealing with role disputes, marital conflict, adjusting to the loss of a
relationship or to a changed relationship, and identifying and correcting
deficits in social skills that make it difficult for the client to initiate or
maintain satisfying relationships
Humanistic Psychotherapies
Psychodynamic theorists believe that everyone passes inner resources for
self-healing and personal growth, and that disordered behaviour reflects a
blocking of the natural growth process
Humanistic psychotherapy is seen as a human encounter between equals
The therapist’s goal is to create an environment in which clients can engage
in self-exploration and remove the barriers that block their natural
tendencies toward personal growth
Barriers often result from childhood experiences
Focus primarily on the present and future instead of the past
Client Centered Therapy
Best-known and most widely used client-centered approach developed by
Carl Rogers
“active ingredient” – relationship that develops between client and therapist

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Roger’s research and experiences as a therapist identified 3 important and
interrelated therapist attributes:
1. Unconditional Positive Regard: a communicated attitude of total and
unconditional acceptance of another person that conveys the person’s
intrinsic worth
2. Empathy: the capacity for experiencing the same emotional response being
exhibited by another person; in therapy, the ability of a therapist to view the
world through the client’s eyes and to understand the client’s emotions
3. Genuineness: the ability of a therapist to honestly express his or her feelings
to a client
As clients experience a constructive therapeutic relationship, they exhibit
increased self-acceptance, greater self-awareness, enhances self-reliance,
increased comfort with other relationships, and improved life functioning
Gestalt Therapy
Gestalt refers to perceptual principles through which people actively organize
stimulus elements into meaningful “whole” patterns
We perceive external stimuli, ideas, and emotions, and we concentrate on
only part of our whole experience
Carried out in groups, and Gestalt therapists have developed a variety of
imaginitave techniques to help clients “get in touch with their inner selves”
Empty-Chair Technique a client may be asked to imagine his mother sitting
in the chair, and then carry on a conversation
Cognitive Therapies
Cognitive approaches to psychotherapy focus on the role of irrational and
self-defeating thought patterns, and therapists who employ this approach try
to help clients discover and change the cognitions that underlie their
Clients often need help in identifying the beliefs, ideas, and self-statements
that trigger maladaptive emotions and behaviours
Focus on both thoughts and behaviours
Ellis’s Rational-Emotive Therapy
Convinced that irrational thoughts, rather than unconscious dynamics, were
the most immediate cause of self-defeating eotions
Ellis’s theory of emotional disturbance and his rational-emotive therapy are
embodied by the ABCD model:
A Activating Event: seems to trigger the emotion
B Belief System: underlies the way in which a person appraises the event
C Consequences: emotions and behaviour due to the appraisal
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