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Chapter 17

Chapter 17 – Psych 1200.docx

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PSYC 2310
Anneke Olthof

Chapter 17 Psych 1200 The Helping Relationship Basic goal of all treatment approaches is to help people change maladaptive, self-defeating thoughts, feelings and behaviour patterns so that they can live happier and more productive lives The relationship between the client and the person providing help is a prime ingredient of therapeutic success Psychodynamic Therapies Psychodynamic approach focuses on internal conflict and unconscious factors that underlie maladaptive behaviour Sigmund Freuds psychoanalysis refers not only to Freuds theory of personality, but also the specific approach to treatment that he developed The goal of psychoanalysis is to help the client achieve insight Insight: in Gestalt psychology, the sudden perception of a useful relationship or a solution to a problem; in psychoanalysis, the conscious awareness of unconscious dynamics that underlie psychological problems Believe that as the client repeatedly encounters and deals with buried emotions, motives, and conflicts both within and outside therapy, the psychic energy that was previously keeping the unconscious conflict under control can be released and redirected to more adaptive ways of living Free Association: in psychoanalysis, the procedure of verbalizing all thoughts that enter consciousness without censorship Clients report verbally without censorship any thoughts, feelings, or images that entered awareness This provides clues Dream Interpretations Dreams express impulses, fantasies, and wishes that the clients defenses keep in the unconscious The royal road to unconscious Resistance Resistance: largely unconscious maneuvers that protect clients from dealing with anxiety-arousing material in therapy free-associating of forget about a therapy appointment, or may avoid talking about certain topics Resistance is a sign that anxiety-arousing sensitive material is being approached Transference Transference: the psychoanalytic phenomenon in which a client responds irrationally to the analyst as if the latter were an important person from the clients past who plays an important role in the clients dynamics Positive transference affection, dependency, or love Negative Transference anger, hatred, or disappointment Interpretation Interpretation: in psychoanalysis, a statement made by the analysts that is intended to promote insight in the client Confronts client with something that they have not previously admitted into consciousness Brief Psychodynamic Therapies One early study showed that about half the clients improved markedly within eight sessions, and most therapeutic effects as rated by researchers occurred within 26 sessions Regardless of how many sessions the clients attended, the rate of improvement was highest as the beginning and decreased over time Interpersonal Therapy: a form of brief therapy that focuses on the clients interpersonal problems and seeks to develop new interpersonal skills Focuses on the clients current interpersonal problems Dealing with role disputes, marital conflict, adjusting to the loss of a relationship or to a changed relationship, and identifying and correcting deficits in social skills that make it difficult for the client to initiate or maintain satisfying relationships Humanistic Psychotherapies Psychodynamic theorists believe that everyone passes inner resources for self-healing and personal growth, and that disordered behaviour reflects a blocking of the natural growth process Humanistic psychotherapy is seen as a human encounter between equals The therapists goal is to create an environment in which clients can engage in self-exploration and remove the barriers that block their natural tendencies toward personal growth Barriers often result from childhood experiences Focus primarily on the present and future instead of the past Client Centered Therapy Best-known and most widely used client-centered approach developed by Carl Rogers active ingredient relationship that develops between client and therapistRogers research and experiences as a therapist identified 3 important and interrelated therapist attributes: 1. Unconditional Positive Regard: a communicated attitude of total and unconditional acceptance of another person that conveys the persons intrinsic worth 2. Empathy: the capacity for experiencing the same emotional response being exhibited by another person; in therapy, the ability of a therapist to view the world through the clients eyes and to understand the clients emotions 3. Genuineness: the ability of a therapist to honestly express his or her feelings to a client As clients experience a constructive therapeutic relationship, they exhibit increased self-acceptance, greater self-awareness, enhances self-reliance, increased comfort with other relationships, and improved life functioning Gestalt Therapy Gestalt refers to perceptual principles through which people actively organize stimulus elements into meaningful whole patterns We perceive external stimuli, ideas, and emotions, and we concentrate on only part of our whole experience Carried out in groups, and Gestalt t
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