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PSYC 2410 (149)
Dan Meegan (42)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9 Review

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2410
Dan Meegan

PsychologyChapter 9 Thought LanguageIntelligenceMental representations images ideas concepts and principles LanguageAccording to anthropologists the brain likely achieved its present form about 50 000 years agoIt took tens of thousands of years after that to paint and write clearly showing that cognitive skills take time to develop and its less about the physical make up of the brainLanguage was thought to have been developed through cooperative social systems social customs and division of labour etc evolutionary theoristsThe Nature and Structure of LanguageLanguage consists of a system of symbols and rules for combining them in ways that can produce an almost infinite number of possible messages Language is symbolic It uses sounds written signs or gestures to refer to objects events ideas and feelings Displacement refers to the fact that past present future and imaginary events and objects that are not physically present can be symbolically represented and communicated through languageLanguage has structure Has rules that govern how symbols can be combined to create meaningful communication unitsLanguage is generative Symbols can be combined and you can create any sentence even if youve never heard anything like it before Surface and Deep StructurePsycholinguists study the psychological properties of language and the underlying mechanisms that produce it Surface structure consists of the way symbols are combined within a certain language the rules of grammar are called syntax Deep Structure refers to the underlying meaning of combined symbols the rules are known as semantics The rules for surface and deep structure are both stored in longterm memoryWhen we recall things were more likely to retrieve the deep structure Ex You can learn a lesson but not remember verbatim how it was taught to you Language from the Bottom UpSentencePhraseWordMorphemesPhonemesPHONEMES bottom humans are capable of several hundred theyre the smallest units of sound that are recognized as separate most languages use 40 to 50 some as few as 15 some as many as 80 ENG uses 46 ex th sh etc MORPHEMES second from bottom combined phonemes smallest units of meaning ENG has more than 100 000ex ed un etc Acquiring a LanguageDespite differences at the phoneme level all adult languages throughout the world have a common underlying deep structureInfants vocalize the entire range of phonemes found in the worlds languages until six months of age when they discard those of other languagesA sensitive period is when a language is most easily learned from infancy to pubertySupport from studies of children who lived by themselves in the while or were isolated from human contact by disturbed parents also from cases of brain damageWith exposure comes syntaxThis applies to sign language as well Men basically use the left hemisphere of their brain while women use corresponding areas from both hemispheres Social Learning ProcessesMotherese highpitched intonation used to attract and maintain their interest and attentionOther ways parents teach their children pointing out objects and naming them reading aloud responding to what dat etc B F Skinner behaviouristbasic premise was that childrens languages development is strongly governed by adults reinforcing appropriate language and nonreinforcing
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