Textbook Notes (363,559)
Canada (158,426)
Psychology (3,263)
PSYC 2450 (262)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5 for psych.docx

9 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Guelph
PSYC 2450
Anneke Olthof

Chapter 5 Birth and the Newborn’s Readiness for Life  Prenatal environment: refers to the environment surrounding birth  Includes medicines given to the mother in delivery, delivery practices and social environment after the baby is born  Can have an effect on the baby’s well-being and the course of their future development The Birth process:  It is a 3-stage process  First stage of labor  The period of the birth process lasting from the first regular uterine contractions until the cervix is fully dilated  Lasts longer for first child and not as long for later borns  Second stage of labor  The period of the birth process during which the fetus moves through the birth canal and emerges from the mothers body  The delivery  When the head of the fetus is positioned at the cervical opening this phase begins  Third stage of labor  Expulsion of the placenta  The after birth  The quickest Assessing the baby’s condition  5 standard characteristics:  Heart rate  Respiratory effort  Muscle tone  Color  Reflex ability  This is called an Apgar test: a quick assessment of the newborns heart rate, respiration, color, muscle tone and reflexes that is used to gauge perinatal stress and to determine whether a neonate requires immediate medical assistance (0-10) and is repeated 5 times  The apgar test may miss less obvious complications  The neonatal behavioral assessment scale (NBAS) is a test that assesses a neonates neurological integrity and responsiveness to environmental stimuli  Measures the baby’s behavioral repertoire and neurological well- being better Labor and Delivery  A strong dose of birth medications can have some undesirable consequences  Mothers who receive a large amount of anesthesia are less sensitive to uterine contractions and do not push effectively during the delivery, their babies have to be pulled from the birth canal with obstetrical forceps or a vacuum extractor o These can result is cranial bleeding and/or brain damage  Labor and delivery medications can cross into the placenta and make the babies lethargic and inattentive  Infants of heavily medicated mothers smile infrequently, become irritable when aroused and are difficult to feed and cuddle with during the first weeks of life  This can result in parents failing to become very involved with or attached to a sluggish, irritable and inattentive baby  These drugs are important to women at risk for birth complications and who experience difficult deliveries  In the right doses these drugs can help Natural and Prepared Childbirth  Each involve a delivery in which physical and psychological preparations for the birth are stressed and medical assistance is minimized  Is based on the idea that childbirth is a normal and natural part of life rather than something women should fear  That women could give a comfortable childbirth with pleasant feelings and readying themselves with training and confidence  Mothers who have more knowledge, training and confidence and less anxiety in their ability to navigate their delivery require less medication and have fewer interventions  Cesarean section o Surgical delivery of a baby through an incision made in the mothers abdomen and uterus  Research shows there are more benefits to natural and prepared childbirth and it is recommended more Home Births  Rejecting the medical model of childbirth  Choosing to deliver their babies at home with the help of a midwife  Believe they home deliveries will reduce the mothers fear and offer max support by encouraging family and friends to be there  Have a calming effect on mothers  Women who deliver at home have shorter labors and use less medication than those who deliver in a hospital  At home deliveries can be as safe as hospitals if the mother is healthy, the pregnancy goes smoothly and the midwife is well-trained  Alternative birth centre: a hospital birthing room or other independent facility that provides a homelike atmosphere for childbirth but still makes medical technology available The Social Environment Surrounding  The delivery used to be mostly about the mother now it is a dramatic experience for both of the parents  The first few minutes and up to 12 hours after the birth is known to be important for emotional bonding  Emotional bonding: term used to describe the strong affectionate ties that parents may feel toward their infant; some theorists believe that the strongest bonding occurs shortly after birth, during a sensitive period  A study proved that mothers who spent more time with their new born had a more involved connection with their children’s lives  Not always the case, adoptive parents still have close with their children when didn't necessarily see them when they were newborns  Sometimes after birth mothers have the maternity blues, depression like symptoms that might be present based on hormone changes after the childbirth and stress due to the baby o Happens to about 40-60% of mothers and passes in about a week  Postpartum depression: o Strong feelings of sadness, resentment and despair that may appear shortly after childbirth and can linger for months  These mothers do not want their infants and perceive them to be difficult babies  Interact less with babies and are hostile towards them  Could have had depression before, dealing with other stressors and lack of support The Fathers experience  View it as a significant life event with positive and negative emotions  Show a sense of engrossment o Paternal analogue of maternal emotional bonding: term used to describe fathers fascination with their neonates, including their desire to ouch, hold, caress and talk to the newborn baby o Fathers at birth plays an important role for the mother and to receive close contact with newborns Birth Complic
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2450

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.