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Chapter 11

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2740
Stephen Lewis

Chapter 11 Motives and Personality Michael the runner  before the 400 he listened to jazz, before the 200 he listened to rap Basic concepts  motives - are internal states that arouse and direct behaviour toward specific objects or goals  motives differ in intensity  motives are often based on needs - states of a tension within a person  as a need is satisfied- states of tension are reduced  motives change how people think - make them see food in clouds if they are hungry  motives belong in the intrapsychic domain - first - internal psychological needs and urges that propel people to think, perceive, and act in certain predictable ways- motive psychologists believe that fantasies, free association, reveal unconscious motivations  Like dispositional psychologists - motive psychologists - people differ from one another in the type and strength of their motives, 2) these differences are measurable 3) these differences are associated with life outcomes (like marriage) 4) differences between people in relative amounts are stable over time 5) motives can provide an answer to the question why do people do what they do  Henry Murray - modern theory of motivation Need  Murray began by defining the term need - a potentiality or readiness to respond in a certain way under certain circumstances - needs organize perception - guiding us to see what we want  a need organizes action by compelling a person to do what is necessary to fulfill a need  it is the process of reducing tension that people find satisfying, not the tensionless state per se  Murray proposed a bunch of essential needs - each need is associated - a specific desire or intention - a particular set of emotions - specific action tendency  Murray believed that each person had a unique hierarchy of needs - like high need for dominance, average for affiliation, and low need for achievement- each interacts with each other  the interaction makes the concept of motive dynamic - dynamic is used to refer to the mutual influence of forces within a person -- in this case, the interaction of multiple motives  for instance, high need of dominance with high need of affiliation - likely to make others comfortable with them leading - low need of affiliation would still have power but exercise it without considering others feelings  Five categories - ambition needs - achievement, order -- needs to defend status - dominance --- needs related to social power - abasement, aggression, autonomy, --- social affection needs -- affiliation, nurturance Press  elements in the environment affected a person's needs - person with high in affiliation - might be sensitive to the social aspects of their environment  Murray used the term press to refer to need-relevant aspects of the environment --the need for affiliation won't affect a person's behaviour unless an appropriate environmental press such as friendly people are present  Also introduced the notion of real environment (alpha press) and perceived environment (beta press) - people see different things in the same situation  a stranger smiles at you - alpha press (objectively) it is the same smile - beta press (subjectively) different people with different needs perceive it differently Apperception and the TAT  apperception - interpreting the environment and perceiving the meaning of what is going on in a situation  Thematic Apperception test ( TAT) - consists of black and white images, which are ambiguous  the person is then asked to make up a story about what is happening in the picture  after story is told - psychologist code them for particular motives  TAT still used with more recent pictures - ambiguous pictures and asked to interpret  we can make a distinction between using the TAT to assess state levels of needs and trait levels  State levels - of a need refer to person's momentary amount of a specific need, which can fluctuate with specific circumstances - losing by a goal in a game, more achievement motivation  the assessment of trait levels - of a need refers to measuring a person's average tendency - or their set point - on a specific trait  assessment of trait levels is most useful in determining individual differences between average tendencies toward particular needs  newer form of assessing motives -Multi-Motive Grid  combines features of the TAT with features of self- report questionnaires  14 pictures are selected to arouse one of the big three motives - achievement, power, intimacy TAT and Questionnaire measure of motives: do they measure different aspects of motives  TAT and questionnaires measures play an important role in hoping psychologists understand the short and long term effects of motives  TAT is good for long term in a group - questionnaire is good for today or tomorrow predictions The Big Three Motives: Achievement, power , and intimacy  Need for achievement  Doing things better  McClelland best known for his research on the need for achievement  defined as the desire to be better  energized by challenge and adversity - obtain satisfaction from completing tasks  prefer moderate levels of challenges  they want to do better than others so it has to be more difficult than easy, but not impossible because they want to succeed  prefer tasks where they are responsible for success, and where they get feedback  Increasing need for achievement  more attracted to business occupations  US has a lot of high achieving students- compared to other nations like new Guineans - it actually frowned upon there  Determining sex differences  life outcomes predicted and childhood experiences differ among genders - high achievers  women high in nacho marry later than low if they value families - women high in anarchy and only care about family often put more time into family goals and courtship[ - \  Nacho is associated with a stressful or difficult childhoods - their mothers were found to be critical towards them  males high nacho have supportive parents 
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