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PSYC 3110 (49)
Chapter 6

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University of Guelph
PSYC 3110
Kieran O' Doherty

Chapter 6 Question: Name five different ‘individual level theories’ in the context of approaches to sexual health, and describe at least three common elements of these theories. o Individual Level theories - Theories about individuals actions and choices and implementing interventions usually without their involvement (pre- conceived ideas called, top-down) - Psychologist develops theory and tests it on a large sample - Compare to (ex.) community approaches; policy interventions 1. Health Belief Model - Likelihood of a behaviour is influenced by cues to action which are reminders/prompts to take action consistent w/ an intention > cues to action can be internal (ex. feeling tired can cause relaxation) or external (ex. going to the doctors) - >demographic, psychosocial and structural factors play a role too 1. Perceived susceptibility – assessment of risk of getting condition 2. Perceived severity – assess seriousness of condition and consequences 3. Perceived barriers – influences that facilitate or discourage behaviour 4. Perceived benefits – positive consequences of adopting behaviour 2. Protection Motivation Theory - Appraisal of health threat and coping response serves as a protection motivation to perform an adaptive response or a maladaptive response; which places individual at health risk - Behavioural change is best achieved by appealing to individuals fears: 1. Perceived severity of threatened event (ex. HIV) 2. Perceived probability of occurrence (vulnerability) 3. Efficacy of recommended (preventative) behaviours (ex. using a condom) 4. Perceived self-efficacy (ex. confidence is using a condom) - PMT assumes protection is maximized when threat to health is severe, individual feels vulnerable, adaptive responses are believed to be an effective means for averting threat, confident in own abilities to successfully complete adaptive responses, rewards associated with maladaptive behaviour are small and costs associated with adaptive response are small - Meta analysis shows that PMT is useful for individual and community level interventions 3. Theory of reasoned action - Persons behavioural intention depends on persons attitude about the behaviour and subjective norms
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