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PSYC 3300 (15)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Notes - Sex Related Comparisons-Theory

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University of Guelph
PSYC 3300
Carol Anne Hendry

Chapter 5 Notes: Sex-Related Comparisons: Theory Biology ­ environment counts for more of variability between sexes than genes Intersex conditions: condition in which there is some inconsistency between the individual’s chromosomal sex and phenotypical sex ­ congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a genetic disorder resulting from a malfunction in the adrenal gland that results in prenatal exposure to high levels of male hormones and a lack of cortisol ­ girls with CAH have superior spatial skills compared to girls without CAH, opposite for boys ­ CAH girls more active and aggressive than non-CAH girls ­ CAH girls more likely to play with male toys and less likely to play with female toys ­ Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) – genetically male but have insensitivity to androgens; born with testes instead of uterus but have female genitalia ­ The strongest evidence for links of sex hormones to cognition and behaviour is in research that has shown prenatal exposure to male hormones (androgens) is associated with enhanced spatial skills and male gender-role behaviour in women Psychoanalytic Theory ­ Horney believed the issues outlined by Freud were due to social forces rather than biology Social Learning Theory ­ theory states that we acquire gender-related behaviour through modeling and reinforcement ­ like models who are reinforced for their behaviour ­ boys more likely to be awarded for aggression ­ boys more likely than girls to be punished for gender-incongruent behaviour Gender-role Socialization ­ sources of gender-role socialization include parents, teachers, peers, neighbours, and the media ­ parents treat sons and daughters
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