PSYC 3710 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Dyslexia, Presentation Program, Dysgraphia
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Written Language: Written Expression,
Spelling and Handwriting
Writing is the most sophisticated and complex achievement of the language system. In language
development writing is often last to be learned.
We integrate previous learning including listening, speaking and reading into writing.
A reader must be able to keep an idea in mind while formulating an idea into words and sentences. Thy
must be able to create the right graphic form for each letter while manipulation a writing instrument. In
addition, the writer must also possess visual and motor memory to integrate complex eye-hand
3 components of writing:
1. Written expression
Success of writer depends on quality of writing instruction that person receieves.
Many Students with LD lack critical writing abilities:
Facility of spoken language
Ability to read
Skills in spelling
Skill with computer keyboard
Knowledge of rules of written usage
Cognitive strategies to organize and plan
They often have errors in spelling, punctuation, capitalization, handwriting and grammar. They often
have short, poorly organized, and lack development of ideas.
The Writing Connection in the Integrated Language System
All language experiences (through spoken language, reading and writing) strengthen the language
system (I.e. instructions in reading can help performance in writing).
In both reading and writing students construct and revise goals, refining and reconstructing
meaning as they progress through material.
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They develop expectations, form attitudes about the text and monitor the information they
want to remember or convey.
Writing is an active process.
The type of reading (used to revise what has been written) is intensive and involves critical
Early Literacy and Writing
Early literacy refers to a young child`s early entrance into the world of words, language and stories.
This concept emphasizes the interrelatedness of the various forms of language in the child`s
Writing may be easier than reading and may develop earlier than reading.
o It is more self-involving than reading. Writing comes from within and is based on what a
writer already knows.
Writing is beneficial to primary-aged students and should be encouraged.
Writing helps children understand print processes from left to right.
At early stages of learning how to write, children should not be taught how to spell. It should be
a creative process to play with and explore writing.
o Invented spelling is encouraged.
o This is beneficial because students will learn that words can be segmented into sounds,
they also learn about the alphabetic nature of English.
Learning about sound segments helps them with reading.
The writing process
The writing process (not writing product) is more important for teachers when teaching students.
The writing product: grading is based on certain expectation of perfection.
o Students must spell correctly, use adjectives, and compose topic sentences.
o Grading is based on word choice, grammar, organization, and ideas.
o This teaches students to dislike writing. Teacher will hand back work with red
corrections and they are supposed to learn from that.
The writing process: emphasizes thinking that goes on during writing.
o Students are encouraged to ask themselves questions (what is the purpose of writing,
how can I get ideas, How can I develop and organize my ideas)
o The writing process can be taught through the thinking-learning activity:
Prewriting drafting Revising Sharing with an audience
Gathering ideas via
Jotting notes in a
margin or using a
They choose intended
Writer records ideas on
It is one version that
will eventually be
written but will be
Editing done to the draft
by refining what is written
There may be several
Last revision: checking
punctuation & spelling
Sharing with an audience:
It gives value and worth to
Published & bound &
shared with class,
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