PSYC 3850 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Concept Learning, Learned Helplessness

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Chapter 7
Educational, Psychological, and Behavioural Characteristics
Key points
- Educational characteristics
oAcademic skills, abstract concepts, comprehension, and functional academics are all
areas of concern in educational programs
- Psychological characteristics
oAtypical psychological characteristics have led to segregation
oMany individuals are less well-adjusted than they could be
- Behavioural characteristics
oBehavioural and psychological disorders are more common among people with CIDs
Although most establish meaningful relationships
- Adaptive skill characteristics
oPerformance and acquisition deficits are evident
oSupport and education could significantly alter these characteristics in any given
individual
Educational characteristics
- Educational characteristics affect how one adjusts to the school environment
- They vary greatly and are influenced by many factors
oSeverity of the disability influences the type of educational program that a student
receives
oThe types of supports available in school, the home, and community considerably affect
the outcomes
oThe age of the student influences educational characteristics, physical environment,
teaching content and materials, instructional approach, curricula, and use of adaptive
and augmentative equipment
- Educational characteristics are affected by cognitive and learning characteristics
oIDEA states that students with disabilities be included in statewide assessments
Increases opportunities for these students to participate in the general
education curriculum and associated assessments
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Some question this with “high stakes” assessments and holding educators
accountable for academic learning
- Academic skills
oIndividuals with CIDs can and do learn academic skills
oGiven the difficulties individuals with CIDs may confront, many educators believe this
may generate the need for being taught a modified functional
academic/vocational/career curriculum at some point in the school career
- Conceptual thinking
oConcepts
Abstractions that are the result of assigning objects, people, ideas, or
experiences to categories
Can reduce complexity of leaning by providing procedures and rules to define a
concept
oConcept formation is greatly enhanced by the ability to learn critical attributes, and
characteristics of the concept
Memory, retrieval of information, focusing and maintaining attention on
relevant attributes are problem areas
oLearning concrete concepts is easier than abstract concepts
Learning abstract concepts is often dependent on the use of metacognitive skills
as well as memory skills
One must be able to make connections between prior and current
learning to develop more complex and abstract concepts over time
oDifficulties with memory become more pronounced with lower IQ scores, and deficits in
executive functioning may also affect the ability to learn efficiently and effectively
oThe more exemplars children were exposed to the better they were able to abstract the
prototypical features despite the exemplar-specific features
oIndividuals with CIDs are capable of learning concepts given appropriate instruction
- Comprehension skills
oLearning concepts, particularly atypical category members, may require explicit
instruction and application of learning strategies
oAcquisition deficit
Diminished intellectual capabilities may lead to a deficit in the acquisition of
information and skills
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oPerformance deficit
Diminished intellectual capabilities may lead to a deficit in the appropriate use
of information and skills
oComprehension skills are imperative in educational environments
Comprehension of adults with CIDs could be improved through strategy
instruction
Individuals with CIDs should be taught comprehension skills through similar
long-term and reciprocal teaching strategies as other students
oMany educational programs do not include “meaningful” literacy instruction
Literacy skills may be more restricted to sight vocabulary, and particularly
functional or “safety” word recognition and comprehension
oStudents with CIDs can make significant progress in comprehension and reading given
adequate support and emphasis
Deficits in overall cognitive functioning and speech and language delays and
differences can complicate the process
A focus on learning should be functional
Students with CIDs respond to the same instructional methods, although they
may require more time to achieve learning
- Functional skills
oFunctional skills
Those skills that, if not performed in part or full by the student must be
completed for the student by someone else
Functionality depends on individual characteristics and must be determined
through ecological or environmental assessment
Academic skills may be included and many individuals with CIDs need functional
academics to achieve success in school and community environments
oThose with more severe CIDs in general acquire less complex educational knowledge
and demonstrate fewer academic skills
Academic instruction is still relevant
They have limited abilities to synthesize information and skills in an organized
useful way and may fail to see relationships among information
Deficits in the ability to generalize also complicate this
Have a greater difficulty learning through observation
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