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Chapter 5

PSYCH312 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Working Memory, Fender Wide Range, Assistive Technology

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Ernie Mac Kinnon

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Students with Learning Disabilities:
Definition of learning disabilities:
Individuals with learning disabilities generally have average or above average
intelligence yet they often do not achieve at the same academic levels as their peers
Learning disabilities (number of disorders which may affect the acquisition, organization,
retention, understanding or use of verbal or nonverbal information)
 individuals may demonstrate at least average abilities essential for thinking and/or
 result from impairments in one or more processes related to perceiving, thinking,
remembering or learning
 i.e. language processing, phonological processing, visual spatial processing,
processing speed, memory and attention
 may also involve difficulties with organizational skills, social perception, social
interaction and perspective taking
Assessing Learning disabilities:
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) contains four indices:
1. Verbal comprehension, 2. Perceptual reasoning, 3. Working memory, 4. Processing
Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ-III) allows assessment of reading skills,
written language, mathematics skills, oral language, and academic knowledge
Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP):
 phonological awareness (awareness that language is composed of sounds and these
sounds/syllables are related to letters)
 phonological memory (coding of information according to its sounds for temporary
storage in working or STM)
Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML)
Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VM):
 designed to detect deficits in visual perception, fine motor skills, and hand-eye
Performance on standardized tests (results are interpreted in terms of norm referenced
age equivalency, standard scores, and percentiles)
 age equivalences = age at which typical children obtain the reported score
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