13. 1 what is leadership and what does it mean for a leader to be effective : leadership. : the use of power and influence to direct the activities of followers toward goal achievement: leader-member exchange theory. 13. 2 why are some leaders more effective than others: leader effectiveness, leader emergence. : the degree to which the leader"s action result in the achievement of the unit"s goals, the continued commitment of the unit"s employees, and the development of mutual trust, respect, and obligation in leader member dyads. : the process of being a leader in the first place: who become an emergent leader, no one else emerges, dominance, who talks the most, prestige, ability to use power and influence, emergent effective, recognizing accidental emergence. Description of trait/ characteristics of leader effectiveness and emergency. : high openness to experience, high extraversion, high general cognitive ability, high energy level, high stress tolerance, and high self-confidence for the emergent leader only.