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Chapter 1-14

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University of Ottawa
Magda Donia

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR What is Organizational Behavior?  Organization behavior (OB) is the field of study devoted to understanding, explaining, and ultimately improving the attitudes and behavior of individuals and groups in organizations.  How organizations can be designed structured more effectively.  How managers can manage more effectively. Early Studies of Management  Attempts to prescribe the “correct” way to manage an organization and achieve its goals: o Classical view: Scientific Management – e.g. Taylor / Bureaucracy (Max Vabour) o Human relations view The Contingency Approach  The general answer to many of the problems in organizations is: “It depends.”  Dependencies are called contingencies  The contingency approach to management recognizes that there is no one best way to manage  An appropriate management style depends on the demands of the situation Integrative Model of OB - F 1.1 (Diagram from book) What do you know about Organizational Behavior? Consider whether the following statements are true or false: 1. Effective leaders tend to possess identical personality traits. FALSE 2. All workers prefer stimulating challenging jobs. FALSE 3. Pay is the best way to motivate most employees and improve job performance. FALSE Organizational behavior helps us to…  Predict OB and events  Explain OB and events in organizations  Manage OB The Scientific Method - F 1.3 (Diagram from book) Scientific Studies … Missing Notes CHAPTER 2 – JOB PERFORMANCE What is Job Performance?  Employee behaviours that contribute, either positively or negatively, to organizational goal accomplishment  Goal isn’t necessarily revenue or profit, but accomplishment Job performance consist of  Task performance (+ve) o Employee behaviours that are directly involved in the production of goods and or services o Routine Task performance  Responses to demand that occur in a normal routine or predictable way o Adaptive task performance (adaptability)  Responses to tasks demand that are unpredictable, novel, or unusual. o Creative Task Performance: Developing ideas or outcomes that are novel and ***** Task performance behaviours  Tasks are not simply performed versus not performed  Poor performers may fail to complete required behaviors BTU the best performers often exceed all expectations  Going the extra mile and beyond  How important is this to organizations? VERY Citizenship Behavior  Voluntary employee activities that may or may not be rewarded but that contribute to the organization by improving the overall quality of the setting in which work takes place  Interpersonal o Behaviors that benefit coworkers and colleagues and involve assisting supporting and developing other organizational members in a way that goes beyond normal job expectations  Helping, courtesy, and sportsmanship Organizational Behavior  Behaviors that benefit the larger organization by supporting and defending the company, working to improve its operations and being loyal o Voice (speaking up, boosterism, civic virtue Counterproductive behavior  Intentionally hinder organizational goal accomplishment o Property deviance: Harms the organizations assets and possessions o Production deviance: Reduces the efficiency of work output o Political Deviance: Intentionally disadvantages other individuals o Personal aggression: Hostile verbal and physical actions directed toward other employees Job Analysis  Many organizations identify task performance behaviours by conducting a job analysis o Generate a list of activities o Rating or activities by “subject matter experts” (SME’s) o Retain most important activities National Occupation Classification (NOC): Onetonline.org Application performance management  Management by objectives (MBO) o Based on whether the employee achieves specific performance goals o How implemented o Where best suited  Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) o Assess job behaviors; uses critical incidents to create measurement scale; pros and cons Performance Management  360-Degree Feedback: Collect performance information from supervisor and others with firsthand knowledge o Pros and cons  Forced Ranking: Managers rank their employees  Social Networking systems CHAPTER 3 – ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT Organizational Commitment What is it?  An employee’s desire to remain a member f the organization Why does it Matter?  Influences whether an employee stays at the organization (is retained) or leaves to pursue another job (turns over)  MONEY What happens if commitment is low?  Withdrawal behavior: Actions that employees perform to avoid the work situation Factors - Effective Factors – Continuous Factors – Normative  Like your coworkers  Promotion or raise in salary  Loyalty to the company  Good relationship with  Employee benefits  The company needs you – managements  Seniority might cause damage or loss  Growth opportunity  Job satisfaction  Like your office  Values match/reputation  New challenge  Location Forms of Commitment: a desire to stay with the organization because of…  Affective commitment: an emotional attachment to, and involvement with, that organization (emotion-based reasons) - You stay because you want to.  Continuance commitment: an awareness of the costs associated with leaving it (cost-based reasons). - You stay because you need to  Normative commitment: a feeling of obligation (obligation-based reasons). - You stay because you ought to What does “Focus of commitment” refer to ?  The various people, places, and things that can inspire a desire to remain a member of an organization. Three forms of Organizational Commitment - F 3.1 (Diagram from book) Affective Commitment  Employees with a high sense of affective commitment: o Identify with the organization o Accept the organization’s goals and values - She’s committed / She’s loyal  Why do we want to encourage it? o More emotionally attached o More citizenship behaviors o More willing to exert extra effort  How do we encourage affective commitment? A Social Network Diagram - F 3.3 (Diagram from book) The Erosion Model – employees with fewer bonds will be most likely to quit the organization. The Social influence model – employees who have direct linkages with “leavers” will be more likely to leave. Continuance Commitment  Cost to leave/benefit to stay:  Increases by: o Total amount of investment made by employee o Lack of employment alternatives  Do we want to increase continuance commitment?  YES, but need to be aware that… o Tends to create more passive form of loyalty o Negligible or negative relationship with work outcomes, except turnover o Sometimes staying because they have to? Embeddendness  Embeddeness o A person’s links to the organization and the community o His/her sense of fit o And what he would have to sacrifice for a job change  Strengths continuance commitment o Provides more reason to stay o And more sources of anxiety upon leaving Normative commitment  Staying is the right or moral thing to do (“should”)  Could be from: Personal work philosophies or organizational socialization  Do we want to increase normative commitment? o Yes / Reduction in turnover  How to increase normative commitment? o Organizational support (e.g., training and development – pay tuition, support language skill development) Why do we care about commitment?  Up to 2/3 of Canadians are willing to voluntarily switch jobs  More of a risk to companies in a competitive market  Particularly certain skills CHAPTER 4 – JOB SATISFACTION Job Satisfaction  Job satisfaction is a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences. o It represents how you feel about your job and what you think about your job. o Are Canadians satisfied? – Yes, 81% of people are satisfied with their jobs. Why Are Some Employees More Satisfied than Others?  Employees are satisfied when their job provides the things that they value. Commonly Assessed Work Values - T 4.1 (Diagram from book) Value-Percept Theory  Job satisfaction depends on whether you perceive that your job supplies the things that you values. o Dissatisfaction = (V want – V have) (V importance)  People evaluate job satisfaction according to specific “facets” of the job.  E.g., pay ($50 000 - $40 000) X Importance Pay Satisfaction Supervision satisfaction  Is it as much as they deserve?  Is the boss competent, polite?  Is it adequate?  “Can they help me attain the things that I value?”  “Are they generally likeable?” What is special about pay, more than anything else? Coworker Satisfaction  We compare ourselves to others.  We expect equity!  “Can they help me do my job?” Promotion Satisfaction  “Do I enjoy being around them?” Satisfaction with the work itself  Are promotion policies fair?  Are they implemented fairly?  Are the tasks challenging, interesting?  Based on ability?  Do they make use of key skills? Question:  Which of the five factors contribute most to overall job satisfaction? o Work, supervisor, co-worker Value-Percept Theory of Job Satisfaction - F 4.1 (Diagram from book) Critical Psychological States Meaningfulness of work: Degree to which work tasks are viewed as meaningful - something that “counts”. Responsibility for outcomes: Degree to which employees feel that they are key drivers of work quality Knowledge of results: The extent to which employees know how well they are doing. Job Characteristics Theory - F 4.3 (Diagram from book) Job Characteristics Theory Variety: Involves a number of different activities; uses different skills and talents. Identity: Completing a whole piece of work from beginning to end with visible outcomes. Significance: Impact on the lives of other people. Autonomy: Provides independence and discretion to the individual doing the work Feedback: Feedback from the job itself about how well the worker is performing Overall the job characteristics moderately or strongly relate to work satisfaction. Question: But, do all employees want more variety, autonomy etc.? - Not necessarily! Depends upon:  Knowledge and skill  Growths need strength: Captures whether employees have strong needs for personal accomplishment or development.  Job Characteristics Moderators: Both of these increase the strength of the relationship within the model. Job Enrichment Job enrichment:  Duties and responsibilities are expanded  Provide more variety, identity, autonomy  Enrichment can: o Boost job satisfaction levels o Heighten work accuracy and customer satisfaction o –ve: training and labor costs tend to rise as a result of such changes. Emotions and Moods Emotions:  Feeling that are often intense, last for only a few minutes, and are directed at (and caused by) someone or some circumstance.  “I’m feeling angry at my boss”  Emotions are always about something. Moods:  Are states of feeling, often mild in intensity, that last for an extended period of time  Not explicitly directed at or caused by anything  “I’m feeling grouchy”; I feel good. Emotional labor  Is the need to manage emotions to complete job duties successfully.  Flight attendants Emotional Contagion  Shows that one person can “catch” or “be infected by” the emotions of another person. Why Are Some Employees More Satisfied that others? - F 4.7 (Diagram from book) Effects of Job Satisfaction on Performance and Commitment - F 4.8 (Diagram from book) CHAPTER 5 – STRESS Stress  Stress: The psychological response to demands when there is something at stake for the individual, and when coping with these demands would tax or exceed the individual’s capacity or resources.  Stressors: Demands that cause the stress response.  Strains: Negative consequences of the stress response. Why Are Some Employees More Stressed Than Others  Transactional Theory of Stress: A theory that explains how stressful demands are perceived and appraised, as well as how people respond to the perception of appraisal.  Primary Appraisal: Evaluation of whether a demand is stressful and, if it is, the implications of the stressor in terms of personal goals and well being. (When people first encounter stressors).  Benign Job Demands: Job demands that are not appraised as being stressful. Types of Stressors Hindrance Stressors: Stressors that tend to be appraised as ruining progress toward growth and achievement. Tend to trigger negative emotions such as anger and anxiety. Challenge Stressors: Stressors that tend to be appraised as opportunities for growth and achievement. Although exhausting, they tend to trigger positive emotions such as pride and enthusiasm.  Work Hindrance Stressors: o Role Conflict: Others’ having differing expectations of what an individual needs to do in a role. o Role Ambiguity: A lack of direction and information about what needs to be done in a role. o Role Overload: An excess of demands on an employee preventing him from working effectively. o Daily Hassles: Minor day to day demands that interfere with work accomplishments.  Ex: having to deal with unnecessary paperwork, office equipment malfunctions, etc.  Work Challenge Stressors: o Time Pressure: The sense that the amount of time given to do a job is not enough.  Tend to be viewed as something to strive for because success in meeting such demands can be satisfying. o Work Complexity: The degree to which job requirements tax or exceed employee capabilities. o Work Responsibility: The number and importance of obligations that an employee has to others.  Non-Work Hindrance Stressors: o Work-Family Conflict: The demands of the work role hinder the demands in a family role. o Negative Life Events: Events such as divorce or death of a family member that tend to be appraised as hindrance. o Financial Uncertainty: Uncertainties with regards to the potential for loss of livelihood, savings, or the ability to pay expenses. Highly relevant during recession or economic downturn.  Non-Work Challenge Stressors: o Family Time Demands: The amount of time committed to fulfilling family responsibilities.  Ex: Travelling, attending social events, hosting parties, and making home improvements. o Personal Development: Participation in activities outside of work. That foster growth and learning.  Ex: participation in formal educational programs, music lessons, volunteer work, etc. o Positive Life Events: Events such as marriage or the birth of a child that tend to be appraised as a challenge. The Transactional Theory of Stress Stressors Stress Hindrance Challenge Primary Appraisal Is this stressful? Work Role Conflict Time Pressure Secondary Appraisal How can I cope? Role Ambiguity Work Complexity Role Overload Work Responsibility Daily Hassles Non-Work Work-Family Conflict Family Time Demands Negative Life Events Person Development Financial Uncertainty Positive Life Events How do People Cope with Stressors Secondary Appraisal: When people determine how to cope with the various stressors they face. Coping: Behaviors and thoughts used to manage stressful demands and the emotions associated with the stressful demands.  Behavioral Coping: Physical activities used to deal with a stressful situation.  Cognitive Coping: Thoughts used to deal with a stressful situation,  Problem-Focused Coping: Behaviors and cognitions of an individual intended to manage the stressful situation itself.  Emotion-Focused Coping: Behaviors and cognitions of an individual intended to help manage emotional reactions to the stressful demands. Examples of Coping Strategies Problem Focused Emotion-Focused Behavioral Methods Working harder Engaging in alternative activities Seeking assistance Seeking support Acquiring additional resources Venting anger Cognitive Methods Strategizing Avoiding, distancing, and ignoring Self-motivation Looking for the positive in the negative Changing priorities Reappraising In the work context, a manager would most likely want subordinates to cope with the stress of a heavy work load by using a problem-focused strategy – working harder – rather than an emotion focused strategy. How do people choose a particular coping strategy?  The set of beliefs that people have about how well different coping strategies can address different demands.  The choice also depends on the degree to which a person believes that he has what it takes to execute the coping strategy effectively.  The degree to which people believe that a particular strategy gives them some degree of control over the stressor. The Experience of Strain  Physiological Strain: Reactions from stressors that harm the human body. o Stressors can reduce the effectiveness of the body’s immune system, which makes it more difficult for the body to ward off illness and infection. o Stressors can hard the body’s cardiovascular system, cause the heart to race, increase blood pressure, and create coronary artery disease. o Stressors can cause headaches, tight shoulders and back pain. o Stomach aches, indigestion, diarrhea, and constipation.  Psychological Strains: Negative psychological reactions from stressors such as depression, anxiety, and anger. o Ex: Hostility, reduced self-confidence, irritability, inability to think clearly, forgetfulness, lack of creativity, memory loss and a loss of sense of humor. o Burnout: The emotional, mental and physical exhaustion from coping with stressful demands on a continuing basis.  Behavioral Strains: Patterns of negative behaviors that are associated with other strains. o Ex: grinding one’s teeth at night, being overly critical and bossy, excessive smoking, compulsive gum chewing, overuse of alcohol, and compulsive eating. Accounting for Individuals in the Stress Process  Type A Behavior Pattern: People who tend to experience more stressors, to appraise more demands as stressful, and to be prone to experiencing more strains. Have a strong sense of time urgency and tend to be impatient, hard-driving, competitive, controlling, aggressive, and even hostile.  Type B Behavior Pattern: Patient, relaxed, easy going, and lacking a sense of urgency.  Social Support: The help people receive from others when they are confronted with stressful demands.  Instrumental Support: The help people receive from others that can be used to address a stressful demand directly.  Emotional Support: The empathy and understanding people receive from other that can be used to ease emotional distress from stressful demands. Summary: Why are some employees more “stressed” than others?  Paying attention to the particular stressors the employee is experiencing, including hindrance and challenge stressors originating in both the work and non-work domains. However, it also depends on how those stressors are appraised and coped with, which determines whether physiological, psychological, and behavioral strains are experienced. Finally, answering the question depends on whether the employee is “Type A” or “Type B” and whether the employee has a high or low amount of social support. How important is Stress? Effects of Hindrance Stressors on Performance and Commitment Hindrance Stressor Negative (Weak) Job Performance Hindrance stressors have a weak negative relationship with job performance. People who experience higher levels of challenge stressors tend to have higher levels of task performance. Hindrance Stressor Negative (Strong) Organizational Commitment Hindrance stressors have a strong negative relationship with organizational commitment People who experience higher levels of hindrance stressors tend to have lower levels of affective commitment and normative commitment. Relationships with continuance commitment are weaker. Effects of Challenge Stressors on Performance and Commitment Challenge Stressor Positive (Weak) Job Performance Challenge stressors have a weak positive relationship with job performance. People who experience higher levels of hindrance stressors tend to have lower levels of task performance. Challenge Stressor Positive (Moderate) Organizational Commitment Challenge stressors have a moderate positive relationship with organizational commitment People who experience higher levels of challenge stressors tend to have higher levels of affective commitment and normative commitment. Relationships with continuance commitment are weaker. Application: Stress Management Assessment st  The 1 step in managing stress is to assess the level and sources of stress in the workplace.  Stress Audit: An assessment of the sources of stress in the workplace.  Managers can begin by asking themselves questions about the nature of the jobs in their organization. o The first category of questions might involve the degree to which the organization is going through change that would likely increase uncertainty among employees. o The second category of questions might center on the work itself. Focusing on the level and type of stressors experienced by the employees. o The third category of questions could involve the quality of relationships not only among employees but also between employees and the organization. Reducing Stressors  First, organizations can try to eliminate or significantly reduce stressful demands.  Job Sharing: When two people share the responsibilities of a single job.  Another example is employee sabbaticals. A sabbatical gives employees the opportunity to take time off from work to engage in an alternative activity. Providing Resources  Training Interventions: Practices that increase employees’ competencies and skills.  Supportive Practices: Ways in which organizations help employees manage and balance their demands. o Offer flexible hours, allow workers to work from home where possible and appropriate, communicate expectations clearly to staff, eliminate unnecessary meetings, allow staff to control their own priorities as much as possible, and train managers on how to support work-life balance Reducing Strains  Relaxation Techniques: Calming activities to reduce stress. Ex: Muscle relaxation, meditation, taking walks, etc. o They teach people how to counteract the effects of stressors, be engaging in activities that slow the heart rate, breathing rate, and blood pressure.  Cognitive Behavioral techniques: Various practices that help workers cope with life’s stressors in a rational manner.  Health and Wellness Programs: Employee assistance programs that help workers with personal problems such as alcoholism and other addictions. CHAPTER 6 – MOTIVATION Motivation  A set of energetic forces that determine the direction, intensity, and persistence of an employee’s work effort.  The extent to which persistent effort is directed towards a goal  Motivation determines: Intensity of effort, persistence of effort and direction of effort. Why Are Some Employees More Motivated than Others Expectancy Theory  A theory that describes the cognitive process employees go through to make choices among different voluntary responses. Argues that employee behavior is directed toward pleasure and away from pain.  Expectancy: the belief that exerting a high level of effort will result in successful performance on some task. o A subjective probability, rating from 0 (no chance) – 1 (mortal lock) that a specific amount of effort will result in a specific level of performance. E > P o Self-Efficacy: The belief that a person has the capabilities needed to perform the behaviors required on some task. (Self-confidence or a task-specific version of self-esteem). o Employees who are more self-confident for a particular task will tend to perceive higher levels of expectancy – and therefor be more likely to choose to exert high levels of effort. o Past accomplishments, verbal persuasion, and emotional cues.  Instrumentality: The belief that successful performance will result in some outcome or outcomes. o A subjective probability, rating from 0 (no chance) – 1 (mortal lock) that successful performance will bring a set of outcomes. P > O  Valence: The anticipated value of the outcomes associated with successful performance. o Positive: “I would prefer having outcome X to not having it.” – Salary increases, bonuses o Negative: “ I’d prefer not having outcome X to having it. “ – Disciplinary actions, demotions, and terminations o Zero: “Who cares?’ o Outcomes are deemed more attractive when they help satisfy needs. (Needs: groupings of outcomes viewed as having critical psychological or physiological consequences.) o Extrinsic Motivation: desire to put forth work effort due to some contingency that depends on task performance. Ex: pay, bonuses, promotions, praise, job security, support, free time, and benefits. o Intrinsic Motivation: Desire to put forth work effort due to the sense that task performance serves as its own rewards. Ex: Enjoyment, interestingness, accomplishment, knowledge gain, skill development & personal expression. o Meaning of Money: the idea that money can have symbolic value (respect, achievement, freedom) in addition to economic value.  Motivational Force: = (E > P) x Sum of [(P > O) x V] o Expectancy (E > P), instrumentality (P > O), and valence (V). o Motivational force = zero when any of the three forces is zero. Goal Setting Theory  A theory that views goals as the primary drivers of the intensity and persistence of effort.  Goals are defined as the objective of aim of an action and typically refer to attaining a specific standard of proficiency, within a specified time limit.  Specific and Difficult Goals: Goals that stretch an employee to perform at his or her maximum level while still staying within the boundaries of his ability. Goal setting theory views goals as the primary drivers of the intensity and persistence of effort.  Assigning employees specific and difficult goals will result in higher levels of performance Assigned versus Self-Set Goals?  Need to affect people’s self-set goals: o The internalized goals that people use to monitor their own task progress.  Increases the intensity and persistence of effort.  Can trigger the creation of strategies What can we do as Managers?  Affect moderators on task performance o Feedback: updates on employee progress toward goal attainment o Task complexity: how complicated the task (information, degree of change, actions) o Goal commitment: Degree to which a person accepts a goal and is determined to try to reach it. o SMART GOALS: Specific, measurable, achievable, results-based, and time-sensitive. Strategies for Fostering Goal Commitment Strategy Description Rewards Tie goal achievement to the receipt of monetary or non-monetary rewards. Publicity Publicize the goal to significant others and co-workers to create some social pressure to attain it. Support Provide supportive supervision to aid employees if they struggle to attain the goal. Participation Collaborate on setting the specific proficiency level and due date for a goal so that the employee feels a sense of ownership over the goal. Resources Provide the resources needed to attain the goal and remove any constraints that could hold back the task efforts. Equity Theory  A theory that suggests that employees create a mental ledger of the outcomes they receive for their job inputs, relative to someone else. Equity theory argues that you compare your ratio of outcomes & inputs to the ratio of someone else.  Comparison Other: Another person who provides a frame of reference for judging equity.  Equity Distress: An internal tension that results from being over rewarded or under rewarded relative to some comparison other.  Cognitive Distortion: A reevaluation of the inputs an employee brings to a job, often occurring in response to equity distress.  Internal Comparison: Comparing oneself to someone in your same company.  External Comparison: Comparing oneself to someone in a different company. Three possible outcomes of Equity Theory Comparison Comparison Result Ways to Restore Balance Equity Your outcomes/Your Inputs = No actions needed. Other’s Outcomes/Other’s Inputs Under Reward Inequity Your outcomes/Your Inputs < Grow your outcome by talking to your boss or by stealing from the company. Other’s Outcomes/Other’s Inputs Shrink your inputs by lowering the intensity or persistence of effort. Over Reward Inequity Your outcomes/Your Inputs > Shrink your outcomes. Other’s Outcomes/Other’s Inputs Grow your inputs through more high-quality work or through some “cognitive distortion.” Psychological Empowerment  Energy rooted in the belief that tasks are contributing to some larger purpose.  Represents a form of intrinsic motivation, in that merely performing the work tasks serves as its own reward.  Meaningfulness: A psychological state reflecting one’s feelings about work tasks, goals, and purposes, and the degree to which they contribute to society and fulfill one’s ideals and passions. o Managers can instill a sense of self-meaningfulness by articulating an exciting vision and fostering a climate in which employees are free to express passion and idealism without criticism. o Employees can identify and clarify their own passions.  Self-determination: A sense of choice in the initiation and continuation of work tasks. o Managers can instill a sense of self-determination by delegating work tasks, rather than micromanaging them, and by trusting employees to come up with their own approach to certain tasks. o Employees can gain more self-determination by earning the trust of their bosses and negotiating for the latitude that comes with that increased trust.  Competence: The capability to perform work tasks successfully. o Managers can instill a sense of competence by providing opportunities for training and knowledge gain, expressing positive feedback, and providing challenges that are an appropriate match for an employee. o Employees can engage in self directed learning, seeking out feedback from managers, and managing their own workloads.  Impact: The sense that a person’s actions “make a difference” – that progress is being made toward fulfilling some important purpose. o Managers can instill a sense of impact by celebrating milestones along the journey to task accomplishment, particularly for tasks that span a long time frame. o Employees can attain a deeper sense of impact by building the collaborative relationships needed to speed task progress. Summary: Why are some employees more motivated than others?  Answering that question requires considering all three energetic forces that initiate work-related effort, including expectancy theory (expectancy, instrumentality, valence), the existence or absence of specific and difficult goals, perceptions of equity and psychological empowerment. How Important is Motivation Effects of Motivation on Performance and Commitment Motivation Strong Positive Job Performance Motivation has a strong positive effect on job performance. People who experience higher levels of motivation tend to have higher levels of task performance. Those effects are strongest for self-efficacy, competence, followed by goal difficulty, the valence-instrumentality-expectancy combination, and equity. Motivation Moderate Positive Organizational Commitment Less is known about the effects of motivation on organizational commitment. However, equity has a moderate positive effect. People who experience higher levels of equity tend to feel higher levels of affective commitment and higher levels of normative commitment. Effects on continuance commitment are weaker. CHAPTER 7 – TRUST, JUSTICE AND ETHICS Trust: the willingness to be vulnerable to an authority based on positive expectations about the authority’s actions and intentions. Justice: The perceived fairness of an authority’s decision making. Ethics: The degree to which the behaviors of an authority are in accordance with generally accepted moral norms. Trust  Disposition Based Trust: Trust that is rooted in one’s own personality, as opposed to a careful assessment of the trustee’s trustworthiness. Our willingness to be vulnerable has to do with our genes and our early experiences. o Trust Propensity: A general expectation that the words, promises and statements of individuals can be relied upon.  Cognition Based Trust: Trust that is rooted in a rational assessment of the authority’s trustworthiness. We rationally evaluate the pluses and minuses of an authority, in terms of its ability, benevolence and integrity. o Trustworthiness: Characteristics or attributes of a person that inspire trust, including competence, character and benevolence. o Ability: The skills, competencies, & areas of expertise that enable an authority to be successful in some specific area. o Benevolence: The belief that an authority wants to do good for a trustor, apart from any selfish motives. o Integrity: The perception that an authority adheres to a set of values & principles that a trustor finds acceptable.  Affect Based Trust: Trust that depends on feelings towards the authority that go beyond any rational assessment of trustworthiness. Our willingness to be vulnerable has to do with our emotional fondness of the authority. Justice  Justice provides an observable, behavioral evidence than an authority might be trustworthy.  Distributive Justice: The perceived fairness of decision-making outcomes. o Employees gauge distributive justice by asking whether decision outcomes, such as pay, rewards, evaluations, promotions, and work assignments, are allocated using proper norms. The proper norm is equity.  Procedural Justice: The perceived fairness of a decision making process. o Giving employees a chance to express their opinions and views during the course of decision-making. Or correct ability. o Procedural justice is fostered when authorities adhere to four rules that serve to create equal employment opportunity. The consistency, bias suppression, representativeness, and accuracy rules help ensure that procedures are neutral and objective  Interpersonal Justice: The perceived fairness of the interpersonal treatment received by employees from authorities. o The respect rule pertains to whether authorities treat employees in a dignified and sincere manner. The propriety rule reflects whether authorities refrain from making improper or offensive remarks.  Informational Justice: The perceived fairness of the communications provided to employees from authorities. o The justification rule mandates that authorities explain decision-making procedures and outcomes in a reasonable manner. o The truthfulness rule requires that those communications be honest. The Four Dimensions of Justice Description Distributive Justice Rules Equity vs. Equality vs. need Are rewards allocated according to the proper norm? Procedural Justice Rules Voice Do employees to provide input into procedures? Correctability Do procedures build in mechanisms for appeals? Consistency Are procedures consistent across people and time? Bias Suppression Are procedures neutral and unbiased? Representativeness Do Procedures consider the needs of all groups? Accuracy Are procedures based on accurate info? Interpersonal Justice Rules Respect Do authorities treat employees with sincerity? Propriety Do authorities refrain from improper remarks? Information Justice Rules Justification Do authorities explain procedures thoroughly? Truthfulness Are those explanations honest? Ethics  The study of business has two primary models: o Perspective: scholars debating how people ought to act using various codes and principles. o Descriptive: scholars relying on scientific studies to observe how people tend to act based on certain individual and situational characteristics.  Unethical Behavior: Behavior that clearly violates accepted norms of morality. Directed at: o Employees: Discrimination, harassment, health and safety violations, etc. o Customers: Invading privacy, violating contract terms, using false advertisement, etc. o Financiers: falsifying financial info, misusing confidential info, etc. o Society: violating environmental info, exposing the public to safety risks, etc.  “Merely” Ethical Behavior: behavior that adheres to some minimally accepted standard of morality. o Obeying labor laws, and complying with formal rules and contracts.  “Especially” Ethical Behaviors: behaviors that exceed some minimally accepted standards of morality. o Charitable giving o Whistle-blowing: employees exposing immoral or illegal actions by their employer. The Four-Component Model A model that argues that ethical behaviors result from the multistage sequence of moral awareness, moral judgment, moral intent and ethical behavior.  Moral Awareness: recognition by an authority that a moral issue exists in a situation. o Moral Intensity: The degree to which an issue has ethical urgency.  An issue is high in moral intensity if the potential for harm is perceived to be high.  Magnitude of consequences, probability of effect, temporal immediacy, and concentration of effect.  An issue is high in moral intensity if there is social pressure surrounding it.  Social consensus and proximity. o Moral Attentiveness: The degree to which people chronically perceive and consider issues of morality during their experience.  People pay more attention to stimuli that are significant, vivid and recognizable.  Moral Judgment: When an authority can accurately identify the right course of action. o Cognitive moral development: as people age and mature, they move through several states of moral development, each more mature and sophisticated than the prior one. o Moral Principles: prescriptive guides for making moral judgments. Moral Principles Used in the Principled Stage Type of Principle Specific Principle Description (And Contributors) Consequentialist Utilitarianism An act is morally right if it results in the greatest amount of good for the greatest (John Stuart Mill) number of people. Egoism An act is morally right if the decision maker freely decides to pursue either short- term or long-term interests. (Adam Smith) Non- Ethics of duties An act is morally right if it fulfills the “categorical imperative.” consequentialist (Immanuel Kant) (The act should be performable by everyone with no hard to society, the act should respect human dignity, and the act should be endorsable by others.) Ethics of rights An act is morally right if it respects the natural rights of others, (John Rawls) Virtue ethics An act is morally right if it allows the decision maker to lead a “good life” by adhering to virtues like wisdom, honesty, courage, mercy, loyalty, etc. (Aristotle)  Moral Intent: An authority’s degree of commitment to the moral course of action. o Situational factors encourage people to go against their moral convictions. Also, economic pressures from assigned goals or specific incentives can encourage people to set aside their moral judgment. o Moral Identity: The degree to which a person views himself as a moral person.  We may define ourselves by what we do, where we come from, what our family status is, or what cultural or ethnical groups we belong to.  Strong moral identities: compassionate, generous, kind, fair, honest and hard-working.  When morality is not an important piece of their identity, their moral principles have no relationship with their actual behavior. Why Are Some Authorities More Trusted Than Others? Justice Distributive Justice Trust Propensity Procedural Justice Interpersonal Justice Trustworthiness Informational Justice Ability Benevolence TRUST Ethics Integrity Moral Awareness Moral Judgment Feelings Toward Effects of Trust on Performance and Commitment Moral Intent Trust Moderate Positive Job Performance Trustee Ethical Behavior Trust has a moderate positive effect on performance. Employees who are willing to be vulnerable to authorities tend to have higher levels of task performance. They are also more likely to engage in citizenship behaviors and less likely to engage in counterproductive behaviors. Trust Strong Positive Organizational Commitment Trust has a strong positive effect on commitment. Employees who are willing to be vulnerable to authorities tend to have higher levels of affective commitment and higher levels of normative commitment. Trust has no effect on continuance commitment. CHAPTER 8 – LEARNING AND DECISION MAKING Learning and Decision Making Leaning: a relatively permanent change in an employee’s knowledge or skill that results from experience. Decision-making: The process of generating and choosing from a set of alternatives to solve a problem. Why Do Some Employees Learn to Make Decisions Better Than Others?  Expertise: The knowledge and skill that distinguish experts from novices. Types of Knowledge: Explicit Knowledge Tactic Knowledge Knowledge that is easily communicated and available to Knowledge that employees can only learn through everyone. experience.  Easily transferred through written/verbal communication.  Very difficult, if not impossible to articulate to others.  Readily available to most.  Highly personal in nature.  Can be learned through books  Based on experience.  Always conscious and accessible information  Sometimes holders don’t even recognize that they have it  General information  Typically job and situation specific. Methods of Learning Reinforcement  Contingencies of reinforcement: four specific consequences used by organizations to modify employee behavior. o Positive reinforcement: a positive outcome follows a desired behavior.  Increased pay, promotions, praise from a manager or coworkers, and public recognition.  An employee needs to see a direct link between his or her behavior and the desired outcome. o Negative reinforcement: an unwanted outcome is removed following a desired behavior.  Doing something because you don’t want to be yelled at. o Punishment: an unwanted outcome that follows an unwanted behavior.  Suspending an employee for coming in late, or firing an employee for misconduct. o Extinction: the removal of a positive outcome following an unwanted behavior.  A manager who does nothing to reinforce desired behavior is decreasing the odds that it will be repeated.  Schedules of reinforcement: the timing of when contingencies are applied or removed. o Continuous reinforcement: a schedule of reinforcement in which a specific consequence follows each and every occurrence of a certain behavior. o Fixed interval schedule: a schedule whereby reinforcement occurs at fixed time periods. o Variable interval schedule: a schedule whereby reinforcement occurs at random periods of time. o Fixed ratio schedule: a schedule whereby reinforcement occurs following a fixed number of desired outcomes. o Variable ratio schedule: a schedule whereby behaviors are reinforced after a varying number of them have Reinforcement Reward Given Following Potential Level of Performance Example Schedule Continuous Every desired behavior High, but difficult to maintain Praise Fixed interval Fixed time periods Average Pay cheque Variable interval Variable time periods Moderately high Supervisor walk-by Fixed ratio Fixed # of desired behaviors High Piece-rate pay Variable ratio Variable # of desired behaviors Very high Commission pay been exhibited. Observation  Social learning theory: theory that argues that people in organizations learn by observing others.  Behavioral Modeling: When employees observe the actions of others, learn from what they observe, and then repeat the observed behavior. o Attentional Processes: Learner focuses attention on the critical behaviors exhibited by the model. o Retention Processes: Learner must remember the behaviors of the model once the model is no longer there. o Production Processes: Learner must have the appropriate skill set & must be able to reproduce the behavior. o Reinforcement: The learned must view the model receiving reinforcement for the behavior and then receive it themselves. Goal Orientation  Learning orientation: a predisposition or attitude according to which building competence is deemed more important by an employee than demonstrating competence. o Enjoys working on new kinds of tasks, even if they fail during their early experiences. o Improves self-confidence, feedback-seeking behavior, learning strategy development, and learning performance.  Performance-prove orientation: a predisposition or attitude by which employees focus on demonstrating their competence so that others think favorably of them. o Work on tasks at which they’re already good, preventing them from failing in front of others.  Performance-avoid orientation: a predisposition or attitude by which employees focus on demonstrating their competence so that others will not think poorly of them. o Work on tasks at which they’re already good, preventing them from failing in front of others. Methods of Decision Making  Programmed Decisions: decisions that are somewhat automatic because the decision maker’s knowledge allows him to recognize the situation and the course of action to be taken. o Intuition: an emotional judgment based on quick, unconscious feelings.  Effective intuition results when people have a large amount of tactic knowledge. o Crisis Situation: a change – sudden or evolving – that results in an urgent problem that mist be addressed immediately.  Non-Programmed Decision: decisions made by employees when a problem is new, complex or not recognized. o Rational Decision Making Model: A step-by-step approach to making decisions that is designed to maximize outcomes by examining all available alternatives. Assumes that people are perfectly rational. Programmed and Non-Programmed Decisions: Identify the Problem Is the problem recognized? Has it been dealt with before? Yes No Implement appropriate solution Determine appropriate criteria for making a decision Does the solution deliver the expected outcome? Generate list of available alternatives No Yes Evaluate the alternatives against criteria Go back to start. Programmed Decisions Choose the solution that maximizes value Implement appropriate solution Does the solution deliver the expected outcome? Yes No Non-Programmed Decisions Go back to start. Decision Making Problems Limited Information  Bounded Rationality: the notion that people do not have the ability or resources to process all available information and alternatives when making a decision. o People have to filter and simplify information to make sense of their complex environment and potential choices they face. This leads to them to miss info when perceiving problems, generating and evaluating alternatives, or judging the result. o People cannot possibly consider every single alternative when making a decision. o Satisficing: What a decision maker is doing who chooses the first acceptable alternative considered. Faulty Perceptions  Selective perception: the tendency for people to see their environment only as it affects them and as it is consistent with their expectations. o Affects our ability to identify problems, generate and evaluate alternatives, and judge outcomes.  Projection Bias: The fault perception by decision makers that other think, feel, and act as they do. o It limits our ability to develop appropriate criteria for decisions and evaluate decisions carefully.  Social Identity Theory: A theory that people identify themselves according to the various groups to which they belong and judge others according to the groups they associate with.  Stereotype: Assumptions made about other based on their social group membership.  Heuristics: Simple and efficient rules of thumb that allow one to make decisions more easily.  Availability Bias: The tendency for people to base their judgments on info that is easier to recall. Faulty Attributions  Fundamental attribution error: The tendency for people to judge others’ behaviors as being due to internal factors such as ability, motivation, or attitudes.  Self-serving bias: When one attributes one’s own failures to external factors and success to internal factors.  Consensus: Used by decision makers to attribute cause, whether other individuals behave the same way under similar circumstances.  Distinctiveness: Used by decision makers to attribute cause, whether the person being judged acts in a similar fashion under different circumstances.  Consistency: Used by decision makers to attribute cause, whether this individual has behaved this way before under similar circumstance. Behavior is observed Consensus Low High D Internal attribution Individual factors External attribution such as ability, Low Distinctiveness High Environmental motivation, or attitudes are to factors are to blame. blame. Consistency High Low Escalation of Commitment  A common decision making error, in which the decision maker continues to follow a failing course of action. How Important is Learning? Learning Moderate Positive Job Performance Learning has a moderate positive effect on performance. Employees who gain more knowledge and skill tend to have higher levels of task performance. Learning Weak Positive Organizational Commitment Learning has a weak positive effect on commitment. Employees who gain more knowledge and skill tend to have slightly higher levels of affective commitment. CHAPTER 9 – PERSONALITY, CULTURAL VALUES, AND ABILITY Personality: the structures and propensities inside a person that explain his or her characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior; personality reflects what people are like and creates their social reputation.  Creates people’s social reputations – the way they are perceived by others.  It captures what people are like. And is a collection of multiple traits. Traits: Recurring trends in people’s responses to their environment. Ex: responsible, easy going, polite Cultural Values: Shared beliefs about desirable end states or modes of conduct in a given culture that influence the expression of traits. Ex: traditional, informal, risk-averse Cultural values can influence the development of a person’s personality traits. Ability: Relatively stable capabilities of people for performing a particular range of related activities. Captures what people can do and is relatively stable. How Can We Describe What People Are Like? The Big Five Taxonomy Big Five: The five major dimension of personality: conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness to experience, and extraversion.  Conscientiousness: Dimensions of personality-reflecting traits like being dependable, organized, reliable, ambitious, hard-working, and persevering. o Has the biggest influence on job performance. o Conscientious employees prioritize accomplishment striving, which reflects a strong desire to accomplish task-related goals as a means of expressing personality.  These people have a built in desire to finish work tasks, channel a high proportion of their efforts towards those tasks, and work harder and longer on task assignments.  Agreeableness: dimensions of personality-reflecting traits like being kind, cooperative, sympathetic, helpful, courteous, and warm. o Prioritize communion striving, which reflects a strong desire to obtain acceptance in personal relationships as a means of expressing personality. o They focus on getting along, not getting ahead. Agreeableness is not related to performance across all jobs. o They have stronger customer service skills.  Extraversion: dimensions of personality-reflecting traits like being talkative, sociable, passionate, assertive, bold, and dominant. o Easiest to judge in zero acquaintance situations – situations in which two people have just met. o Extraversion is not necessarily related to performance across all jobs. o Extraverted people prioritize status striving, which reflects a strong desire to obtain power and influence within a social structure as a means of expressing one’s personality. o Extraverts care a lot about being successful, influential & direct about their work efforts towards “moving up” and developing a strong reputation. They are more likely to emerge as leaders in social & task-related groups. o They tend to be high in positive affectivity, which is a dispositional tendency to experience pleasant, engaging moods such as enthusiasm, excitement and elation.  Neuroticism: dimensions of personality-reflecting traits like being nervous, moody, emotional, insecure, and jealous. o Second most important when it comes to job performance. o There are few jobs for which the traits associated with neuroticism are beneficial to on-the-job behaviors. o Neuroticism is synonymous with negative affectivity, which a dispositional tendency to experience unpleasant moods such as hostility, nervousness, and annoyance. o Neurotic people are more likely to appraise day-to-day situations as stressful and feel like they are exposed to stressors more frequently. o Neurotic people are more likely to be “Type A’s”. o Neuroticism is strongly related to locus of control, which reflects whether people attribute the causes of events to themselves or the external environment. o They often believe that the events that occur around them are driven by luck, chance, or fate. (External Locus) External and Internal Locus of Control People with an external locus of control tend to believe: People with an internal locus of control tend to believe: Many of the unhappy things in people’s lives are partly due to People’s misfortunes result from the mistakes they make. Getting a good job depends on being in the right place at the rBecoming a success is a matter of hard work; luck has nothing to do with it. Many times exam questions tend to be unrelated to course work tIn the case of the well-prepared student, there is rarely if ever such a thing as studying is useless. an unfair test. The few people that are in power run this world, and there is not much the citizen can have an influence in government decisions. little guy can do about it. There’s no use in trying too hard to please people. People are lonely because they don’t try to be friendly.  Openness to Experience: dimensions of personality-reflecting traits like being curious, imaginative, creative, complex, refined, and sophisticated. o The traits associated with openness are not related to job performance across all tasks. o Jobs that are very fluid and dynamic, with rapid changed in job demands benefit from high levels of openness. Cultural Values Culture: The shared values, beliefs, motives, identities, and interpretations that result from common experience of members of a society and are transmitted across generations.  Culture provides society with their own distinct personalities. And certain cultures tend to place a higher value on certain traits.  The values that are salient in a given culture influence how people select and justify courses of action and how they evaluate themselves and other people.  Cultural values come to reflect the way things should be done in a given society. Ethnocentrism: One who views his cultural values as “right” and values of other cultures as “wrong.” Hofstede’s Dimensions of Cultural Values Individualism and Collectivism:  The degree to which a culture has aloose social framework (individualism) or a tight social framework (collectivism). Individualistic Collectivistic The culture is a loosely knit social framework in which people take care of The culture is a tight social framework in which people take care of the themselves and their immediate family. members of a broader in-group & act loyally to it. (Ex: Canada, the Netherlands, France) (Ex: Indonesia, China, West Africa) Power Distance:  The degree to which a culture prefers equal power distribution (low power distance) or an unequal power distribution (high power distance). Low High The culture prefers that power be distributed uniformly where possible, in aThe culture accepts the fact that power is usually distributed unequally more egalitarian fashion. within organizations. (Ex: Canada, Germany, the Netherlands) (Ex: Russia, China, Indonesia) Uncertainty Avoidance:  The degree to which a culture tolerates ambiguous situations (low uncertainty avoidance) or feels threatened by them (high uncertainty avoidance) Low High The culture tolerated uncertain and ambiguous situations and values unusual The culture feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and ideas and behaviors. relies on formal rules to create stability. (Ex: Canada, Indonesia, Netherlands) (Ex: Japan, Russia, France) Masculinity-Femininity:  The degree to which culture value stereotypically male traits (masculinity) or stereotypically female traits (femininity). Masculine Feminine The culture value stereotypically male traits such as assertiveness andthe The culture value stereotypically female traits such as caring for others and acquisition of money and things. caring for quality of life. (Ex: Canada, Japan, Germany) (Ex: Netherlands, Russia, France) Short-term VS. Long-term Orientation:  The degree to which a culture stresses values that are past and present oriented (short-term orientation) or future oriented (long-term orientation). Short-term Orientated Long-term Orientated The culture stresses values that are past and present oriented, such as The culture stresses values that are future oriented, such as persistence, respect for tradition and fulfilling obligations. prudence and thrift. (Ex: Canada, Russia, West Africa) (Ex: China, Japan, the Netherlands) Project Globe Globe: Global leadership and organizational behavior effectiveness.  Collection of 170 researchers from 62 cultures who have studied 17 300 managers in 951 organizations since 1991.  The main purpose is to examine the impact of culture on the effectiveness of various leader attributes, behaviors, and practices. The Ten “Societal Clusters” Anglo (7): Latin Europe (6): United States, Canada, Australia, England France, Spain, Italy, Israel Nordic Europe (3): Germanic Europe (5); Denmark, Finland, Sweden Germany, Austria, the Netherlands,Switzerland Eastern Europe (8): Latin America (10): Poland, Hungary, Russia, Greece Mexico, Brazil, Columbia, Venezuela Sub-Saharan Africa (5): Middle East (5); Zimbabwe, Namibia, Nigeria Turkey, Egypt, Kuwait, Morocco Southern Asia (6): Confucian Asian (6): India, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia China, South Korea, Japan, Singapore Nine Units of Measurement or “Cultural Dimensions” Performance Orientation Uncertainty Avoidance Humane Orientation Institutional Collectivism In-Group Collectivism Assertiveness Gender Egalitarianism Future Orientation Power Distance  Gender Egalitarianism: The culture promotes gender equality and minimizes role difference between men and women. o High: Nordic Europe, Easter Europe. Low: Middle East  Assertiveness: The culture values assertiveness, confrontation, and aggressiveness in social relationships. o High: Germanic Europe, Easter Europe. Low: Nordic Europe.  Future Orientation: The culture engages in planning and investment in the future while delaying individual or collective gratification. o High: Germanic Europe, Nordic Europe. Low: Middle East, Latin America, and Eastern Europe.  Performance Orientation: The culture encourages and rewards members for excellence & performance improvement. o High: Anglo, Confucian Asia, Germanic Europe. Low: Latin America, Eastern Europe.  Humane Orientation: The culture encourages and rewards members for being generous, caring, kind, fair, & altruistic. o High: Southern Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa. Low: Latin Europe, Germanic Europe The Big Five  Conscientiousness Personality  Agreeableness  Neuroticism  Openness to Experience  Extraversion What employees are like. Cultural Taxonomies Cultural Values  Hoftede Dimensions  Project Globe Dimensions What Does It Mean For An Employee To Be “Able”? Cognitive Ability: Capabilities related to the use of knowledge to make decisions and solve problems.  Verbal Ability: Various capabilities associated with understanding and expressing oral and written communication. o Oral comprehension: the ability to understand spoken words and sentences. o Written comprehension: the ability to understand written words and sentences. o Oral expression: refers to the ability to communicate ideas by speaking. o Written expression: refers to the ability to communicate ideas by writing. o Verbal abilities are most important in jobs in which effectiveness depends on understanding and communicating ideas and information to others.  Quantitative Ability: Capabilities associated with doing basic mathematical operations and selecting and applying formulas to solve mathematical problems. o Number Facility: capability to do simple math operations. o Mathematical Reasoning: the ability to choose and apply formulas to solve problems that involve numbers.  Reasoning Ability: A diverse set of abilities associated with sensing and solving problems using insight, rules, and logic. o Problem Sensitivity: the ability to sense that there is a problem right now or likely to be one in the near future. o Deductive Reasoning: The ability that refers to the use of general rules to solve problems. It is important in any job in which people are presented with a set of facts that need to be applied to make effective decisions. o Inductive reasoning: refers to the ability to consider several specific pieces of information and then reach a more general conclusion regarding how those pieces are related. o Originality: The ability to develop clever and novel ways to solve problems.  Spatial Ability: Capabilities associated with visual and mental representation and manipulation of objects in space. o Spatial Orientation: refers to having a good understanding of where one is relative to other things in the environment. o Visualization: imagining how something will look like after it has been rearranged.  Perceptual Ability: The capacity to perceive, understand, and recall patterns of information. o Speed and Flexibility of closure: refers to being able to pick out a pattern of info quickly in the presence of distracting information, even without all the information present. o Perceptual Speed: refers to being able to examine and compare numbers, letters, and objects, quickly.  General Cognitive Ability: The general level of cognitive ability that plays an important role in determining the more narrow cognitive abilities. Type More specific facet Jobs where relevant Verbal  Oral and written comprehension. Business executives; police, fire, and ambulance dispatchers;  Oral and written expression. psychologists. Quantitative  Number facility Treasurers; financial managers; mathematical technicians;  Mathematical reasoning statisticians. Reasoning  Problem sensitivity Surgeons; business executives; fire inspectors; judges; police detectives; forensic scientists; cartoonists; designers.  Deductive reasoning and Inductivereasoning  Originality Spatial  Spatial Orientation Pilots; drivers; boat captains; photographers; set designers.  Visualization Perceptual  Speed and flexibility of closure Musicians; firefighters; police officers; pilots; mail clerks; inspectors.  Perceptual Speed Emotional Ability Emotional Intelligence: A set of abilities related to the understanding and use of emotions that affect social functioning.  Self-Awareness: The ability to recognize and understand the emotions in oneself.  Other-Awareness: The ability to recognize and understand the emotions that other people are feeling. o People who are high in this aspect are not only sensitive to the feelings of others but also can anticipate the emotions that people will experience in different situations. o People who are low in this aspect don’t effectively sense the emotions that others are experiencing, and if the emotions are negative they could possibly worsen the situation.  Emotion Regulation: The ability to recover quickly from emotional experiences. Applies to positive & negative emotions.  Use of Emotions: The degree to which people can harness emotion and employ them to improve their chances of being successful in whatever they are seeking to do. Physical Ability  Strength: The degree to which the body is capable of exerting force. o Static Strength: the ability to lift, push, or pull very heavy objects using the hands, arms, legs, and back. o Explosive Strength: the person exerts short bursts of energy to move himself on an object. o Dynamic Strength: ability to exert force for a long period of time without becoming overly tired & giving out.  Stamina: The ability of a person’s lungs and circulatory system to work efficiently while he is engaging in prolonged physical activity.  Flexibility and coordination: o Flexibility: The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach.  Extent Flexibility: degree of flexibility.  Dynamic Flexibility: speed of flexibility. o Coordination: The quality of physical movement in terms of synchronization of movements and balance.  Gross body Coordination: coordinating movement of body, arms, & legs in activities that involve all 3.  Gross body Equilibrium: Ability to regain balance in contexts where balance is upset.  Psychomotor ability: capabilities associated with manipulating and controlling objects. o Fine manipulative abilities: keeping hand and arm steady while grasping manipulating, and assembling small objects. o Control movement abilities: making quick, precise adjustments to a machine while operating it. o Response orientation: quickly choosing among appropriate alternative movements. o Response time: quickly responding to signals with body movements.  Sensory ability: Capabilities associated with vision and hearing. o Near and far vision: seeing details of an object up close or at a distance. o Night vision: seeing well in low light. o Visual color discrimination: detecting differences in colors and shades. o Depth perception: Judging relative distances. o Hearing sensitivity: Hearing differences in sounds that vary in terms of pitch and loudness. o Auditory attention: Focusing on a source of sound in the presence of other sources. o Speech recognition: Identifying and understanding the speech of others. Type More specific facet Jobs where relevant Strength  Static, explosive, and dynamic.
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