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Psychology (1,899)
PSY100Y5 (809)
Dax Urbszat (681)

Some Chapter notes with diagrams from textbook and my own diagrams

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Dax Urbszat

Psychology NotesNeesha Joshi Wilhelm Wundt tried to change the view of psychology y He said psychologys primary focus was consciousness y This is why psychology is focused onThe mindMental processes y G Stanley Hall established Americas first research laboratory johns Hopkins universityChapter 4y Psychophysics is the study of how physical stimuli are used as psychological experience o Sensation is the stimulation of sensory organs o Perception is the selection organization and interpretation of sensory input The interpretation of the sensationThresholds y The threshold is the period between where energy level has begins to have effect and when it stops o For example a gadget that turns on when light is turned on has a threshold based on the level of light intensity at which the gadget turns on y The absolute threshold is the minimum amount of stimulus that an organism can detectJust noticeable difference y The just noticeable difference JND is the smallest amount of difference of a stimulus that a specific sense can detect y Webers law states that the size of a JND is a constant proportion of the size of the initial stimulus o The constant proportion is called a Weber fraction o Ex The Weber fraction for lifting weights is 130So the amount of weight you need to add is 130 of the original weightFor 300 its 310 for 900 its not 910 but 930 y Fechners law states that the magnitude of a sense is proportional to the number of JNDs that are causing the stimulus above the threshold o Ex If there are 3 light bulbs in a dark room when the first one turns on it is very noticeable but when the send and third bulbs are turned on you can barely notice the difference Signaldetection theoryy The signaldetection theory proposes that the detection stimuli involve decision processes as well as sensory processes These are influenced by factors other than the intensity of the stimulus Psychology NotesNeesha Joshi o The more noise in a system the harder it will be to detect a week signal Perception without awarenessy Subliminal perception is the unconscious awareness of a sensory input o Lets say in an experiment someone was told to stare at a computer screen and an image was flashed at them Then they were asked if they saw anything and they say noLater on when they were told to choose a shape from a bunch of pictures they end up choosing the image that was flashed at them Thus they were unconsciously aware Sensory adaptation y Sensory adaptation is the slow decline in sensitivity due to prolonged exposure y Basically your sensitivity decreases y This is an automatic process and it help keep us aware of changes not constants o This is basically for safety so we can pay attention to potential threats Light Stimulusy Amplitude also affects the perception of colour y We see only a small portion of the band of light o Visible lighty The eye detects electromagnetic radiation light o Vision is functional o Allows for detection of movement predator or prey o Allows for detection of color ripe or spoiled y Light detection is useful because o Light travels rapidly no delay unlike hearing o Light travels in straight lines no distortion o Light interacts with the surfaces of objects in the environment is reflected or absorbed The Eyey Light enters the eye through a transparent layer called the cornea y The lens focuses the light on the retina o It is made up of soft tissue and it can adjust to different environmentsThe lens gets thicker around the edges when you focus on a close objectVice versa for distant objects y The lens in the eye and the cornea flip the image and display it at the back of the eye o So the image is displayed upside down o The brain knows how to read the image y Some problems in the focus of the eye
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