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Canada (161,487)
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SOC341H5 (18)

Occupation Segregation by Tracey Adams and Sandy Welsh.docx

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Lina Samuel

Occupation Segregation by Tracey Adams and Sandy Welsh  Fox and Fox argue that the decline in segregation was, at least partly, spurred by the movement of women into some formerly male-dominated occupations  Vertical segregation is occupational segregation associated with income inequality, while horizontal segregation means that different groups work in different jobs, often in different sectors of the economy, but that their earnings are likely comparable.  Data documenting a drop in sex segregation in Canadian society provide good news, implying that longstanding gender inequality in the labour force may be on the decline  Bielby and Baron hold that sex segregation at the level of jobs is higher than occupational level segregation for two main reasons o First, even when men and women share a broad occupation category and do similar work, they are often given different job titles, with different incomes and opportunities for advancement o Second, men and women rarely do similar work in the same organization and location: most firms show preference for hiring either men and women in a job  Women’s employment continued to be less ethnically segregated than men’s because women’s employment tends to be concentrated into fewer job categories  People of colour are least likely to hold positions of status and authority  Many female dominated jobs pay less than many male dominated jobs  Sex segregated contributes to income inequality. Some of the gender gap in wages may also be the result of other factors like age and discrimination  Racial segregation similarly contributes to racialized differences in earnings  Wanner argues that immigrants educated abroad also receive lower returns to their education  Many other studies illustrate that women are less likely than men to be promoted in Canadian workplaces  On average, women are less likely to be in positions where they can make decisions and exercise power, as are people of colour  Men and women of colour are more likely to be in lower level positions where they exercise little authority at work  While women on average have been entering managerial and supervisory positions in larger numbers in the past two decades, they also may exercise less authority over other women only  Sex segregation is simply the result of men and women choosing jobs that suit them best. This argument can be extended to racial segregation as well. People from different social backgrounds have different cultural experiences and beliefs that lead them to choose certain types of occupations  Furthermore, the personal choice argument cannot account for Bielby and Baron’s findings that men and women often do similar work, but in different jobs with different job titles.  There are certainly differences between men and women and some among ethnic groups in education and training that influence the jobs available to each  Howe
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