ANTB20H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Uptodate, Critical Role, Indep

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Published on 5 Jan 2015
School
UTSC
Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTB20H3
THE DEVIL BEHIND THE MIRROR
Chapter 4: Sex Tourism and Masculinity
Jimmy’s Bar has been a popular meeting place for male tourists who traveled to the
island to meet Dominican women and also a meeting place for Dominican women for male
clients for manicures, massages and sex
 tsmtravel.com provides information and travel reports relating to ex workers worldwide;
through this site Jimmy’s Bar gained considerable notoriety (130)
North American and European men travel to the Dominican Republic in search of
women over whom they could exercise sexual and domestic discipline as potential husbands,
“boyfriends,” or clients in the sex tourism industry (133)
 imperial masculinity: “...these men collectively constructed and naturalized ideologies of
racial, class, ethnic and sex/gender differences that both registered and reinscribed the
sociospatial hierarchies of the global division of labor.”
“...the real and fantasized subordination of women provides the imagined prototype and
concrete field of social distinctions and hierarchies are interpreted, naturalized, and eroticized.”
Ann McClintock: “the imperial conquest of the globe [finds] both its shaping and figure
and its political sanction in the prior subordination of women as a category of nature.”
“...it is the eroticization of these social distinctions, on the model of sexual control and
discipline, that contributes to their durability, flexibility, and perceived naturalness in hierarchical
social systems. One might say that in the cult of imperial masculinity hierarchy feels good.”
In B.C. sex work was reducible neither to sex/work but instead embraced disparate
practices through which women renegotiated and contested hierarchies that were secured
simultaneously in terms of gender, sex, race and class (134)
“...heteronormative masculinity is a power-laden social and semiotic architecture within
which men fashion, interpret, and negotiate their relations with each other and the social world...
this currency of male sociality, comprising culturally constituted beliefs, values, and structures of
feeling, as well as concrete social powers and prerogatives, plays a critical role in mobilizing,
coordinating, and “naturalizing” male power in hierarchical social systems.” (135)
Foucault: “[Masculinity is a ] moving substrate of force relations which, by virtue of their
inequality, constantly engender states of power.”; masculinity as an ideology lends structural
meaning and support to racial, class and imperial hierarchies
IMF and World Bank have given rise to development strategies that rely heavily on the
naturalization of gender and other social differences  agricultural and manufacturing economy
has shifted to a tourism and labour-intensive-processing-of-exports economy  both rely heavily
on the exploitation of women’s labour (136)
DOCILE BODIES AND EROTICIZED POWERS
Tourism industries market and commodify exotic and deeply gendered images of non-
Euro. host societies as stressing their passivity and “otherness” (136-37)
 these representations are rooted in colonial history so that places like the D.R. are viewed as
“sites of hedonistic license and consumption that recapitulate the historic prerogatives of
imperial elites among colonized peoples.” (137)
women account for the majority of tourism-related jobs which are typically low-skill and
low-wage (e.g. chambermaid, kitchen staff)
 “...the tourism industry not only constructs the tourist experience in gendered and racialized
terms-as an encounter with a docile, obliging, and feminized Other-but also mobilizes, affirms,
and reconfigures patriarchal ideologies and power relations within host societies to form a
division of labour that accentuates wealth and power differentials between ’hosts’ and ‘guests’.”
FTZs are zones that offer investors duty-free import and export of goods as well as tax
and regulatory incentives that facilitate labour intensive assembly operations
 dominated by foreign investment and goods produced require high inputs of cheap labour
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THE DEVIL BEHIND THE MIRROR
Chapter 4: Sex Tourism and Masculinity
 FTZs have provided for rapid rural-to-urban migration because of their location in capital cities
or the greater Santo Domingo metropolitan area (e.g. 42, 000  80, 000 a decade after San
Pedro de Macorís FTZ establishment) (138)
 between 1970-1994 women participation in the D.R. labour force has increased from 25.3-
36.4%; 1994 - 58% were in export-processing sector, 65% of which were in garment and textile
companies
 $1, 678.69 pesos per month but $4, 743.33 required to stay above the poverty line
 un-unionized: few benefits, forced overtime, unskilled, poor pay - 34¢/hr.
 routinely subject to sexual harassment and abuse (139)
Raynolds: “Companies profit from Dominican patriarchal traditions, that limit women’s
alternatives and make them disproportionately responsible for home and family. Women’s
restricted employment ensures that they will accept low-waged and unconventional jobs,
particularly if this work permits them to forgo migration and remain near their families.”
 FTZ industries exclude women from admin. and supervisory positions. Belief that women are
better suited for the repetitive and fast-paced assembly line because of their nature for work that
requires patience, manual dexterity and acquiesance to highly regimented working conditions
(138-39)
*”...rapid development of the tourism and export-processing industries have both shaped and
been shaped by practices of gender subordination that situate Dominican women within the
glob. econ. as “natural” subjects of labor and sex/gender exploit.” (139)
TECHNOLOGIES OF MASCULINITY: SEX TOURISM AND THE INTERNET
Websites like TSM enable men to find vulnerable populations of women and exploit them
through the naturalized, pleasure-seeking economy of heteronormative masculinity (139-40)
 “travel reports”, maps, photos, video clips (139-40)
“Websites such as TSM provided men with up-to-date information about the economic
vulnerability of women-women of colour in particular-and also enabled the information of
technologically mediated structures of male sociality focused on the “self-imagining” of
heteronormative masculinity on a global scale. Male sex tourism...also figured them [women]
within an electronically mediated masculine imaginary eroticized subjects of sexual control and
consumption.” (140-41)
THE NIGHT ECONOMY
Hotels permitted women guests at no extra charge b/ check/collect cédulas...to ensure
tourists see vs. confirming age of female guests (141)
Gabriel Zapata’s hotel did not allow non-reg. tourists in  fam.-friendly and affordable
reputation
Few men recog. as sex workers b/c Boca Chica not popular for single males and males
could claim identity as tourist guide
 same sex local guests not permitted (142)
Usually operated indep...f/ 400-800 pesos  worked w/ fisgones and motoconchos to
procure clients (25% commission)
Protection money given to police f/ protection f/ arrests and harassment
Arrange. made w/ owners of bars and discotheques - meeting of clients and soliciting of
customers and selling drinks f/ these locations
 more formal arrangements: unpaid hostesses that got tips and employer ID badge
Women cluster around same venues for security; from same barrio/town pool:
transportat., room, board*Businesses involved in sex tourism may pay Nat. Police to keep quiet
(143)
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