ANTA02 – Cultural Anthropology; Chapter 6
Pages 183 - 184, Body Image & Gender Hierarchies
Desired body shape in the West today is thin, they are judged to be superior to a heavier person.
90% of white girls in a study said they were dissatisfied with their weight.
Being thing was believed to be the ticket to happiness and popularity.
Thinner girls in this study said that the heavier girls didn't losing weight because they weren't concerned
with their personal appearance and were lazy.
Max Weber argued that social class can be based on economic wealth and/or status class: prestige,
honor, educational or occupational achievements, or religious or spiritual affiliation.
Ascribed status: an identity that is perceived as fixed and unchanging because a person is believed to be
born with it.
Achieve status: an identity that is believed to be in flux and that is dependent upon the actions and
achievements of an individual.
Caste: a form of social stratification and identity in India where individuals are assignment at bitch to the
ranked social and occupational groups of their parents.
Franz Boas was among the first social scientists to discredit racist and sexist theories and ideologies that
sought to legitimize the marginalization of people based on race, religion, gender and ethnicity.
Samuel George Morton began to collect and measure skulls from all over the world. Morton believed
that a person's intelligence was related to the size of his or her brain; the larger the brain, the more
intelligent the person.
Morton first measured the size/capacity of skulls by filled them with mustard seeds then pouring them
out and measuring the volume. He Later used 1/8 inch-diameter lead shot.
He concluded that white skulls had a mean value of 92 cubic inches, American Indian skulls 79 cubic
inches, and black skulls from America, Africa, and Australia 83 cubic inches.
Stephen Gould re-examined Morton's work and concluded that his summaries were a patchwork of
fudging and finagling to reach conclusions that supported the socially constructed hierarchy.
He concluded that Morton had simply rejected and selected certain data.
Allan Hanson notes that the concept of intelligence contains a