ANTA02 – Cultural Anthropology; Chapter 2
Pages 40 - 65
Sedentary: a mode o livelihood characterized y permanent or semi-permanent settlements.
Progress: the idea that human history is the story of a steady advance from a life dependent on the
whims of nature to a life o control and domination over natural forces.
Culture change: the changes in meanings that a people ascribe to experience and changes in their way
Bands: a term used by anthropologists to refer to egalitarian unites of social organization, found mostly
among foragers, that usually consist o fewer than 100 people.
Slash-and-burn (or swidden) agriculture: a mode of livelihood in which forests are cleared by burning
trees and brush and crops are planted among the ashes of the cleared ground.
Clans: a unilineal descent group whose members claim descent from a common ancestor.
State: a form of society characterized by a hierarchical ranking of people and centralized political
Irrigation agriculture: a form of cultivation in which water is used to deliver nutrients to growing plants.
Population density: the number of people in a given geographic area.
Industrial revolution: a period of European history, generally indentified as occurring in the late 18th
century, marked by a shift in production from agriculture to industrial goods, urbanization, and the
"putting out" system; a means of production, common in the 16th and 17th century and surviving today,
in which a manufacturer or merchant supplies the materials and sometimes the tools to workers, who
produce the goods in their own homes.
Factory system: a system of production characterized by the concentration of labour and machines in
specific places. It is associated with the industrial revolution.
Economic development: the term used to identify an increase in level of technology, and by some,
standard o living of a population. Others view it an as ideology based on three key assumptions: (1) that
economic growth and development is the solution to national as well as global problems. (2) that global
economic integration will contribute to solving global ecological and social problems, and (3) that
foreign assistance to undeveloped countries will make things better.
World bank: one o the institutions crated at the Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, meeting in 1944 of
Allied nations. The world bank functions as a lending institution to nations largely for projects related to
International monetary fund: formed in 1944 at the Bretton Woods Conference to regulate currency
transactions among countries. The IMF now makes loans and regulates the economies of leaning
More than a billion people worldwide suffer from hunger and poverty, live in an urban and rural slums,
and lack even the basics of health care.
Until around 10,000 years ago, humans were scattered in small scale, nomadic bands of 30 to 100
people; who lived by gathering wild plants and hunting small and large game. In these groups, formal leaders were not needed. If there was a specialist, it was likely to be a person
who was believed to have special spiritual powers that could be used to cure illness or to cause illness or
death. Kinship served as the main organizing principle o these societies.
Some foragers began to plant crops and domesticate wild animals. These groups became sedentar7,
living in permanent or semi-permanent settlements or 200 to 2,000 people.
Eventually, simple occupational roles developed.
Leaders organized labour for the purpose of constructing public works such as roads, fortifications, and
Hereditary leaders emerged settlements grew into cities and competition between groups over available
resources spurred the development of standing armies.
Lewis Henry Morgan and Leslie White, who developed explanations of culture change basic on the idea
Foragers chose at some point to settle down and domesticate plants and animals, it was an easier, less
dangerous, and more productive way to get food.
Morgan postulated a theory of human development in which human societies evolved through three
stages that he labelled savagery, barbarism, and civilization. He further divided savagery and barbarism
into early, middle, and late stages.
The advance from early to middle savagery was marked by the control of fire; from middle to late
savagery by the in