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FREB22H3 (2)
Chapter 1

Organizational Behaviour - Chapter 1.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Pascal Riendeau

Organizational Behaviour – Chapter 1 – OB and Management What are Organizations and Organizational Behaviour? • Organizations – Social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort • The field of organizational behaviour is about understanding people and managing them to work effectively, is concerned with how organizations can survive and adapt to change, and is concerned with how to get people to practise effective teamwork • Organizational Behaviour – The attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizations • Human Resources Management – Programs, practices, and systems to acquire, develop, and retain employees in organizations • Reasons to study OB: Interesting, Important, and Makes a difference Goals of Organizational Behaviour • Goals of OB include effectively predicting, explaining, and managing behaviour • In organizations, there is considerable interest in predicting when people will make ethical decisions, create innovative products, or engage in sexual harassment • OB is interested in determining why people are more/less motivated, satisfied, or prone to resign -> A particular behaviour could have multiple causes • Explanation is complicated by the fact that the underlying causes of some event or behaviour can change over time • Management – The art of getting things accomplish in organizations through others • Whereas prediction and explanation are analysis, management constitutes action • Evidence-based management – Translating principles based on the best scientific evidence into organizational practices Early Prescriptions Concerning Management • For many years experts interested in organizations were concerned with prescribing the “correct” way to manage an organization to achieve its goals • There were two basic phases to this prescription: Classical view and historical view • Classical Viewpoint – Advocated high specialization of labour, intensive coordination, and centralized decision making • To maintain control, the classical view suggested that managers have fairly few workers, except for lower-level jobs • Scientific Management – Frederick Taylor’s system for using careful research to determine the optimum degree of specialization and standardization of work tasks • Frederick supported the development of written instructions that clearly defined work procedures and encourages supervisors to standardize workers’ movement and breaks for maximum efficiency • Bureaucracy – Max Weber’s ideal type of organization that included a strict chain of command, detailed rules, high specialization, centralized power, and selection and promotion based on technical competence • He saw bureaucracy as a model that would standardize behaviour in organizations and provide workers with security and a sense of purpose Human Relations Movement and Critique of Bureaucracy • Hawthorne Studies – Research conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric near Chicago in the 1920s and 1930s that illustrated how psychological and social processes affect productivity and work adjustment • They were concerned with the impact of fatigue, rest pauses, and lighting on productivity • Human Relations Movement – A critique of classical management and bureaucracy that advocated management styles that were more participative and oriented toward employee needs • This critique addressed several specific problems: • Strict specialization is incompatible with humans needs for growth and achievement • Strong centralization and reliance on formal authority often fails to take advantage of the creative ideas and knowledge of lower-level members who are often closer to the customer • Strict, impersonal rules lead members to adopt the minimum acceptable level of performance • Strong specialization causes employees to l
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