Grenville chapter notes

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31 Dec 2010

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1. The Selborne Memorandum by William Waldegrave Palmer, Earl of Selborne
Lord William Waldegrave Palmer, second Earl of Selborne, was appointed British High Commissioner in South Africa in 1905
unlike his predecessor, Alfred Milner, Palmer had considerable sympathy for largely agrarian Afrikaner population of Transvaal and
Orange Free State
he opposed Milner’s policy of Anglicization through immigration, and supported move toward responsible government for South Africa
Palmer is best known for his memorandum of 1907, which ostensibly focused on railroad consolidation but ultimately laid out a road map
for bringing together South Africa’s various colonies
Selborne Memorandum is seen as signalling an end to so-called “Cape liberalism” with its emphasis on equality before the law
there is the educated native, whose aspirations must be regarded with wise sympathy, and there are tribes still in the stage of barbarism
and between these extremes there are many grades of development both tribal and individual
coloured population—not native in above sense, having strong infusion of white blood, containing in ranks many educated and valuable
citizens in whom work of civilisation is already accomplished, many others in a more backward state, to all whom the whites must
manifest the desire to render friendly aid in their upward path
primary function of Imperial Power is to protect from foreign invasion the frontiers of all the countries united under the British flag
duty of raising, equipping and controlling the fleets and forces necessary for purpose to supplement and support local military resources
of each part of the Empire rests indeed with the Government of the United Kingdom, but this merely points to the fact that institutions of
the Empire are still imperfect
organisation of a South African force which can be raised suddenly and moved swiftly to any part of the country implies in itself a federal
union of some sort, but unless it is to be as ineffective as allied forces usually are, any defensive organisation common to South Africa
means that it must be subject to some common authority answerable to South Africa as a whole
question of defence is secondary problem, mere adjunct and consequence of primary problem of native policy
its separation into independent parts is fatal to success from outset
such separation means—division of national strength in all its forms; division of purpose and plan; different policies, yielding different
results, which, sooner or later, must come into contact and conflict with one another
all experience goes to show that those administrations will differ and that different policies applied at same time in different parts of same
country, to same races, members of which are in constant communication with one another, must together defeat object at which each
severally aims
general result is sure to be something utterly unlike what any one of them was intended to produce, and proceeding from policies which
are inconsistent and causes which are uncontrolled will be accidental if not disastrous in its effects
2. from Red Rubber by E.D. Morel
E.D. Morel was born in Paris, but as a young man moved to England and became a naturalized citizen of Great Britain
he worked as a clerk in a Liverpool shipping firm, who had a shipping contract with the Congo Free State (the Central African territory
under the direct control of Belgium’s King Leopold II and his investors)
because of his knowledge of French, Morel was sent to Belgium to oversee the shipping records relating to the Congo, where he gained
access to information that showed the Free State to be an overwhelmingly exploitative enterprise, even in comparison to other colonial
in 1900, Morel began a campaign against King Leopold and the Congo Free State, subsequently becoming a full-time journalist,
publishing articles about the Congo in numerous newspapers and rallying the public to his cause
Red Rubber was widely read and had a significant impact on public opinion with Great Britain and the US and because his campaign
framed its critique of the Free State in terms of humanitarianism rather than anti-imperialism, even those who endorsed the colonial
project could support Morel
groundswell of support for his cause was so great that in 1903 the British House of Commons passed a resolution decrying the Congo
Free State
in 1908, two years after the publication of Red Rubber, Belgium annexed the Congo, severed King Leopold’s ties to its governance, and
place the territory under the control of the Belgian Parliament
hostage-house—recognised institutions of Upper Congo; inside, men, women, and children (chiefly women) are cramped and suffocated,
unkempt, grovelling in filth and squalor; half-starved, wholly starved at times
official cannot even resign because the administration does not admit it; if he insists and leaves his station, he can be prosecuted for
desertion; any case, he cannot get out of the country alive, for the routes of communication, victualling stations, etc. are in the hands of
the Administration, and escape in a native canoe cannot happen either, because every native canoe, if its destination be not known and its
movement chronicled in advance from post to post, is at once suspected and liable to be stopped, for the natives are not allowed to move
freely about the controlled water-ways
hostage-house is one of most effective assets of rubber slave-trade
these hostages are here because their husbands or their brothers have failed to trap the weekly antelope required as part of the tax for the
white man’s table or their supply of fresh fish is short or the rubber has been of bad quality and insufficient in quantity
husbands will require their wives, and they will trap the antelope, they will find the fish, and they will improve their rubber supply
3. Prayer for Peace byopold Sédar Senghor
Senghor was born in the French colony of Senegal in 1906, the son of a well-to-do landowner
won a scholarship to the Sorbonne in Paris, where he met fellow intellectuals Aimé Césaire and Léon Damas
together they developed concept of negritude, which emphasized the importance of an over-arching African identity and culture
Senghor fought in French all-African unit during WWII, and was briefly imprisoned by Germans
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after war, he represented Senegal in French Parliament and when Senegal declared its independence from France in 1960, Senghor
became nation’s first president, where he remained in office until retirement in 1980, working with other African countries to create West
African Economic Community
in 1984, Senghor became first African elected to the French Academy
Senghor wrote “Prayer for Peace” in the middle of WWII
the chaos enveloping Europe undermined the colonialist presumption that the Western world represented civilization and progress
a Roman Catholic, Senghor himself struggled with his genuine affection for France and for French culture
this poem articulates a certain admiration for Europe, but it also suggests affinity among various colonized peoples, both within Africa
and around world
4. Methods of Native Administration: Political Officers and Native Rulers by Lord Frederick Lugard
Lugard was born in India in 1858, son of Reverend F.G. Lugard
after being educated at Royal Military College, entered the army and assigned to number of imperial outposts, including Afghanistan,
Burma, and Uganda
Lugard became High Commissioner of Northern Nigeria in 1900 and over next 6 years, he developed concept of Indirect Rule, a strategy
whereby British ruled through existing, traditional authorities
Lugard later became Governor of Nigeria and attempted to implement his policies throughout country
Indirect Rule became accepted as a technique for of rule throughout the British Empire during the 1920s and 1930s
Lugard’s instructions to political officers elaborates on details of Indirect Rule
in this publication, he emphasizes that the goal of his policies is to bring “civilization” to Africans without interfering in existing social
this paradoxical goal, he writes, is to be accomplished through political officers who understand native customs and are able to balance
the concerns of the colonized with the best interests of the Empire
Resident—duty to carry out loyally policy of Governor, and not to inaugurate policies of their own; in modifying policy’s applications
will fully inform and obtain approval of Governor; senior Government Official in Province, and represents Lieutenant-Governor in all
Administrative matters; in absence of responsible officer of any Department it is his duty to report any dereliction of duty on part of any
departmental subordinate to Head of his Department, or if of a serious nature to Lieutenant-Governor; first and most essential duties are
those in connection with conduct of Native Administration, including close supervision of Native Courts and assessment for taxation
Governor—through Lieutenant-Governor, is at all time ready and anxious to hear, and to give full and careful consideration to views of
Residents, but expects Residents to give effect to it in thorough and loyal spirit, and to inculcate same spirit in juniors
5. African Perspectives on Colonialism by A. Adu Boahen
between 1880 and 1900, all of Africa except Liberia and Ethiopia was seized and occupied by European imperial powers of Britain,
France, Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Spain, and Italy; Africans were converted from sovereign and royal citizens of own continent into
colonial and dependent subjects
by 1900s, in place of numerous independent states and politics, new and numerically smaller set of 40 artificially created colonies had
emerged, which were administered by governors and officials who were appointed by their metropolitan governments and were in no way
responsible to African subjects
by 1910, colonial system had been firmly imposed on virtually the whole of Africa
some see the explanation in the rise of the new imperialism in Europe due primarily to the economic forces operating during the last 3
decades of the 19th century, and, more especially, to the need to look for areas where the surplus capital being generated by these forces
could be invested
others have seen the Scramble as more or less an accidental by-product of the diplomatic confrontations among the major European
powers, particularly, France and Britain, and argue that the whole Scramble was touched off by the British occupation of Egypt in 1882
more recently, some European historians have attributed the Scramble to a combination of internal African conditions and external
European factors
causes of Scramble can be found, not in Africa or Southeast Asia, but rather in the congruence of the economic as well as the political and
social forces operating in Europe during the last 2 or 3 decades of the 19th century
first and most crucial factor was economic—2nd half of 19th century was period during which international trade became increasingly
competitive, following spread of England’s industrial capitalism to other European countries to US; main consequence of this was
emergence of neomercantilism, that is, abandonment of free trade and erection of tariff barriers for protection of young industries of
Europe and America, step taken by Russia in 1887, Germany in 1879, and France in 1881; developments created urgent need for colonies
or areas outside Europe whose markets could become exclusive monopoly, and to obtain raw materials (cotton, palm oil, rubber, peanuts,
minerals, and so on) to feed new factors, which could be obtained or developed in tropical areas of Africa and Southeast Asia; 3rd
economic factor was need to invest surplus capital being generated by capitalist system of production
there were also political forces—most important of these was exaggerated spirit of nationalism in Europe following unification of both
Germany and Italy and especially after Germanys defeat of France in 1871; with emergence of strong national consciousness, nations
began to think not only of their power and progress but also of their prestige, greatness, and security; in Europe of last decades of 19th
century, number of overseas colonies nation possessed became measure or symbol of its prestige and greatness; Portugal, Germany, and
Italy all rushed for colonies overseas to prove that they had acquired place in sun, and France did so to prove that it was still great power
despite its humiliating defeat by Germany in 1871
social forces—main contribution was need to acquire colonies where surplus labour produced by industrial capitalist system as well as
large numbers of unemployed could be settled without losing nationality or severing links with mother country; to undertake such
colonization that number of colonization societies emerged in Europe, especially Germany and Italy, and some of these societies did exert
pressure on governments to acquire colonies
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