Bryman chapter 3 the nature of quantitative research. Preference for the natural science approach to research (positivism) Epistemological - relating to the theory of knowledge, nature, methods and limits of human knowledge. Ontological - the nature and relations of being or the kinds of things that have existence. Deductive - inference of particular instances from a general law. Positivism - every rational justifiable assertion can be scientifically verified. Objectivist - reality is objective and external to the mind and knowledge is reliably based on observed objects and events. Measurement validity - degree of which a measurement measures what it purports to measure. Hypothesis: deduced from a theory and tested, sometimes don"t specify a hypothesis beforehand. Research design: choice of this has implications for different issues ex. external validity. Devise measures of concepts: operationalization - the operations performed to measure a concept. Select research subjects/respondents: subjects for experiments, respondents for surveys.