Systematic, agreed set of rules and processes which are rigoursly adhered to, and against which the research can be evaluated. Deduction, deductive reasoning is when the investigator starts w/ general ideas and develops specific theories and hypotheses f/ them which are then tested by collecting and analysing data. Induction, inductive reasoning begins w/ observations and builds up general statements and hypotheses f/ them for testing. Positivism, the dominant philosophy underlying quantitative scientific methods, it assumes that phenomena are measurable using the deductive principles of the scientific method. > like matter, human bhvr is a reaction to external stimuli and that it s possible to observe and measure it using natural and physical sciences. Paradigm, a set of theoretical perspectives that consist of a set of assumptions on which the research questions are based or a way of looking @ the world.